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Thomas J. Hilbish et al. (2010) in the article Historical Changes in the Distributions of Invasive and Endemic Marine Invertebrates are contrary to global warming predictions: the effects of decadal climate oscillations tested whether a hybrid zone that has formed between an endemic and invasive species of marine mussel has shifted pole-wards as expected under a general hypothesis of global warming or has responded instead to decadal climate oscillations. Using 15 locations, mussels were sampled and later analyzed. Change in the system was established by comparison of frequency of species. The invasive species rapidly contracted southwards and became rare in the previous area they occupied.

Rachel Przeslawski et al. (2008) conducted a research titled “Beyond corals and fish: the effects of climate change on non coral benthic invertebrates of tropical reefs.” In their article, it was noted that the change in climate threatened tropical reefs at a very fast rate. Their study focused majorly on corals and fishes. A study review onthe impacts of climatic conditions associated with environmental change on non-coral tropical benthic invertebrates. They noted that an increase in water temperatures may decrease survivorship and increase the developmental rate, as well as alter the timing of gonad development, spawning, and food availability. This study is intended to create a framework with which to predict the vulnerability of benthic invertebrates to the stressors associated with climate change, as well as their adaptive capacity to help researchers and scientists in the future to implement research and management policies. 

Christopher R. Pyke et al. (2008) conducted a research on Current Practices and Future Opportunities for Policy on Climate Change and Invasive Species. They found out that climate change and invasive species are treated as important, but independent issues. They argue that the design and implementation of climate-change policy in the United States should specifically consider the implications for invasive species; conversely, invasive-species policy should address consequences for climate change. Such policy development should primarily lie on the characterization of interactions between invasive species and climate change, identification of areas where climate-change policies could negatively affect invasive-species management, and identification of areas where policies could benefit from synergies between climate change and invasive-species management.

Future Research

All recent researches point out that stringent action needs to be put in place to help mitigate effects of invasive species and climate change. However, researches conducted recently are not sufficient; they still lag behind creating research gap that needs to be filled in the future. The governments and policy makers on environmental issues should focus on dealing out with species that pose threat due to climate change and then direct more research studies towards predicting where the species are likely to invade.

First, future studies should concentrate more on the interaction between climate change and entry on invasive species into a new habitat. What recent studies have provided the link between the two is not sufficient to predict and put in place measures to deal with invasive species threat to our ecosystem. Despite the obvious fact that most recent researches have concluded that increased globalization and climate change will increase the rate of invasive species invasion, few specifically address how invasive species are taking advantage of climate change in most parts of the world.

Still most recent researches do not provide much information on the damages from invasive species in connection to climate change. Furthers researches should be conducted on the negative effects of invasive species spread in relation to climate changes. This will create immense awareness of the potential threat leading to more rapid formulation of policies to mitigate the threat.

Recent research studies reveal limited information on the economic impact of invasion of invasive species in relation to climate changes which are likely to be of critical importance to policy makers for policy intervention. Further studies should be done in the future on the economic impact of invasive species more particularly due to climate change.

Climate fluctuations should be taken into account for in future research studies and study models, specifically with consideration to introduced tropical and subtropical invasive species and with same rates of geographical expansions. Furthermore, future studies should directly test the predictions provided by recent researches. They should answer critical question unanswered by these research like whether climate change increase the susceptibility of our ecosystem to invasive species. The studies should also address and examine potential responses to the most devastating invasive species facilitated by climate changes.

In conclusion, it is quite evident thatclimate change will affect aquatic invasive species all through the invasion trail. Significant research gaps exist in understanding environmental change impacts and interactions with other stressors and constrains. More information and research are required on impacts of environmental change to reduce the uncertainties. Most research activities do not take climate change effects into consideration thereby potentially endangering management objectives. More information is needed on effects and adaptation choices for effective management of the invasive species.

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