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PowerPoint Presentation

PowerPoint presentation came about when Microsoft came up with a software program called PowerPoint. The program is widely used by presenters to present their topics to an audience. Even if PowerPoint presentation is prevalent in the context of education, it is frequently misused. It is very essential to have a comprehensive understand regarding the intended use any Microsoft Office application programs including PowerPoint. When designing a PowerPoint presentation, one must primarily focus on the characteristics of the audience for instance, different levels of education, and individuals with disabilities such as hearing and sight impairments (Moore & Vander, 2007). The presenters must also consider the message they intend to convey to their audience. If an audience includes lowly educated individuals, then the presentation should be simple, with an easily understood language. Automatic slide transition should be given a considerable timing so as the audience can be able to read fully through any given PowerPoint slide. A PowerPoint presentation should have a text with large fonts as well an easily read font type if the audience is comprised of visually impaired audience, so that they can be able to read from their sitting positions. Presentations with images are very important for the audience with hearing impairments as they can be able to understand the message easily.  

Approaches to job design

According to Hannaway & Hunt (1995), approaches to job design include engineering approach, human approach and the job characteristics approach. These three approaches are very important because they ensure increased production within organizations in one way or the other. The primary significance of approaches to job design is employee motivation which is real focused within organizations. The three approaches to job design should be discussed briefly so that one can understand how they are important toward employee motivation. In the engineering approach, task idea was the most prominent element imagined by FW Taylor. According to this approach, every employee's work should planned by the management earlier, and each employee is given complete written instructions which describe in detail the chore to be accomplished. The task specifies what to be done, how it should be done, and the exact time it is allocated. Employees should be offered with thorough training regarding the job, successful job performers are rewarded by monetary compensation, and employees should be assigned jobs that match with their capabilities.

The human approach of job design aims at designing the most rewarding and interesting jobs. This approach ensures that employees are constantly motivated by ensuring that they are well recognized, the working conditions are clean, presence of favorable inter-personal relations, and when they are assured of job and pay security. According to Hackman and Oldham's job characteristics approach theory, employees will work to their best given that they are positively rewarded for the work done, and when they get satisfaction from the work. This approach addresses employee independence, effective communication between employees and employers, and job satisfaction. Through these, the employees remain motivated and therefore work hard for increased productivity.

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