The nerve cell, also known as a neuron, is a significant component in the body's nervous system and plays an important role by passing information in specific biological mechanisms. Information is passed in form of both chemical and electrical processes. The nerve cells collect information constantly and carry out a harmonization of activities in order to meet the needs of the brain. This way, they determine factors like feelings, thoughts, sensations, mental status, learning and other capabilities of the brain that are constantly being initiated by the human body. Nervous systems also engage in crucial communication with each other (Brown, 2001).Processing of information by the cells is achieved through means of the nerve impulse which essentially is a transmission signal in coded form, from a certain stimulus alongside the neuron's membrane. This transmission normally starts at the point where the signal originates, then passes in succession from one neuron to another. This process creates a constant information chain, in a perfectly formed arrangement of nerve cells. Chemical and electrical phenomena are involved in processing the transmitted information. Electrical activities are responsible for propagation of the signal within a nerve cell whereas the chemical function is responsible for transmitting the signal from neuron to neuron or muscle to cell (Cardoso, 2001). The neuron comprises of three significant parts which are the cell body, dendrites and the axon .Dendrites are thin fibers extending from the cell and do receive information. The main role of the cell body is to carry out basic functions of the neurons. The axon carries impulses to other nerve cells and is an elongated, lean fiber (Neurotransmitter Review, n.d).
In conclusion, the nerve cell is perhaps one of the body's most important components and a significant element of the brain. These cells are tiny in nature and composition but their functions are so powerful and play a vital role in body mechanisms through brain activity.