Mitosis and the Microscope

Mitosis is defined as the process by which the nucleus and the cytoplasm in the cell divide itself.Types of mitosisAccording to Baileys (2005), this is the stage that refers to all the stages within the cell other than mitosis. It is during this stage that cell double up in numbers to allow the synthesis of proteins to take place.Here, the chromosomes in the cell become clear; the nucleolus disappears whereas the mitotic spindles start forming up (Baileys, 2005). It is very clear that the nuclear envelope disappears also. The disappearance of the nuclear envelope mainly indicates the end of this stage.In this stage, the chromosomes can be seen to be fully arranged on the metaphase plate like (this plate is known as the metaphase plate) whereby they attach to the fully formed spindle (Baileys, 2005). It is within this stage that centimes position themselves in the opposite poles of the cells.Anaphase stage begins when the sister chromatids split and the daughter chromosomes formed from this splitting up moves to the opposite poles within the cells.

In this stage, the chromosomes tend to assemble on opposite poles, the nuclear envelope which had disappeared in the prophase starts reforming around all sets formed. Cytokinesis which is the division of the cytoplasm takes place in this stage (Baileys, 2005).Microscope and its partsAccording to Stehli (2003), a microscope is an instrument which is used in biological experiments to look into small objects that can not be seen with human naked eyes. This instrument consists of various important parts. These parts include;This is the top most lenses that an individual uses to see through objects. They usually consists of a power of 10*or that of 15*.This is the part which connects the eyepiece to the objective lenses.This is a source of light used instead of a mirror. It serves the same purpose as the mirror that is to reflect light from an external source up to the stage where the specimen is placed (Stehli, 2003).According to Stehli (2003), this is the place whereby the specimen in which the experiment is been carried out is placed. Stage clips are also important in ensuring that the specimen is held into the proper position.

Turret or revolving nosepieceThis is the part known to hold two or more objective lenses and they can be easily rotated to the desired position.Objective lensesStehli (2003) asserts that, a microscope is normally known to have three or four objective lenses. It is evident for a scientist to have a good resolution, a sophisticated microscope is needed and that which contain an Abbe condenser. Objective lenses that contain high power seem to be retractable. This refers to hitting a slide therefore pushing in of the end of the lens thus protecting both the slide and the lens. It is important that a good microscope to contain a parfocal, achromatic and parcentered lenses to get a clear view.The main objective for this lens is to focus light on to the specimen on question. They are normally useful when they are on their highest power i.e. of 400* and above (Stehli, 2003). Microscopes that usually have a condenser lenses appear to have sharper image than one without.Diaphragm or IrisStehli (2003) asserts that, this is the rotating disks that are normally found under the stage. It has several holes that are used in ensuring that there is variation on the intensity and size of the l8ight entering the specimen.

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