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Discussion Question

Module 1DQ 1

CINAHL offers reliable coverage of the information related to allied health and nursing disciplines. Consumer and patient health education or information will be the topic to enter in the database. This relates to learning about health issues, which affect consumers. Various results yielded by the research are health topics and health news, information on drugs, and directories of physicians, organizations, and hospitals. Other questions answered by the research are how to evaluate websites of government agencies and related-health unions. The tools and options available to further refine this research is the review of available literature and several websites. These websites help interested parties when they are conducting a research (Systems, 1993). Correlation of information helped access information. The technique used to facilitate this process was the use of links. One had to examine or assess available data in order to select necessary information.

Some of the ways to refine a search is peer review, which is perceived to help achieve the highest quality of search. Publication date is also used to refine the search, whereby it uses the slider to set a range of years and then click "update". Linked full text can also refine a search. Source types are used to refine a search when a person is only looking for journal articles, click updates, and tick periodicals. Again, it is possible to use toolbars on the research page all the time to facilitate the search of relevant information. Finally, subject, i.e. principal heading, shows one frequently occurring subjects in the current set of results. This element is based upon descriptor allocation by the database. Nevertheless, filtering the results of a search may refine a search.

Module 1DQ 2

Two techniques can be used to broaden a search. These are used to facilitate a comprehensive search and  are normally used based on the knowledge of the database. The most comprehensive search techniques in CINAHL are searching by keyword and subject heading. For a broad or comprehensive search, it is crucial for a person to search for the topic one at a time. Subject heading has been largely used to broaden a search. The reason why they are used is that they are descriptive terms added to determine the content of articles in a standardized vocabulary in a consistent manner regardless of terminologies used by the novel author (Levy, 1993). Moreover, it is recommended that any person should search using the subject heading because it decreases the risk of failing to find articles, which use different terminologies than those used in the past for keyword searches. CINAHL database is developed in a manner whereby it offers a person a selection of headings.

On the contrary, CINAHL uses keyword search. This is an advantage and a disadvantage to subject search in case one does not know or is unsure of the exact title of the information source, the exact name of author, or the exact subject heading. Therefore, people have to find the source of the topic. For example, when a word is enclosed in double quotation marks, this searches for the exact name or the field. One of the advantages of keyword search is that keyword search is used specifically when a person wants to search for a name. On the contrary, subject search is a technique that focuses on the subject heading of the document that a person wants to search. The combination of two searches will improve the effectiveness of the searches.

Module 2 DQ1

Evidence-based practice is a technique of solving problems related to provision of healthcare that combines the key evidence from the patient care data. It also studies clinicians' expertise values and patients' preferences. The aim of these series is to give nurses the knowledge and the skills they need to use evidence-based practice efficiently and consistently. The purpose of critical appraisal is to provide cost-efficient and high quality nursing care. It also aims to increase satisfaction of patients and advance quality of care provided by the nurses. Finally, it focuses on nursing practice besides the traditions and habits to support the research. The procedure of conducting patient healthcare appraisal involves several steps. The first step is to state the problem or evidence-based healthcare. This step explains problems that patients would be facing (Fineout-Overholt, 2005). Again, it explains the evidence-based healthcare. The next step is formulating the most answerable question. Normally, these are the recommendations aimed to reduce these problems. Thirdly, one has to formulate an effective search strategy and perform the search on patient healthcare and education. Fourthly, one has to appraise research results to meet the objectives of conducting this process. Finally, the researcher has to make an informed decision so that patients’ problems can be solved instantly.

Module 2 DQ2

Qualitative study covers a different set of approaches to enquiry aimed to generate knowledge thoroughly from human experience. A qualitative study of patient's perception on depression and anxiety has enabled patients to manage their problems. The reason why the study was done was to explore patients’ perspectives in relation to their problems such as depression and anxiety. Focus group interviews and semi-structured individuals aided in getting clear information about the problems affecting patients. From 20 patients interviewed, 11 of them had depression and anxiety. This study was improved as compared to the last research conducted.  Therefore, this qualitative study led to a reduction of number of patients, who frequently visited the hospital (Beck, 2010). The reason why the study facilitated the reduction of the number of patients with the disease was that it increased their understanding. Literature review was among the methods that were used to search for sufficient information in the qualitative study.

Module 3 DQ1

Implementation plan is a management tool that shows critical steps of starting a project. An implementation plan outlines the process and time for thinking through critical components. Another beneficial element of an implementation plan is that it allows to predict possible challenges. People concerned in running, i.e. the stakeholders, should have a common understanding so that operations of the company can run smoothly. This element must be maintained regardless of the level of development and involvement. This means that stakeholders have to understand the goal of the research or the program ((U.S.), 1975). Again, the stakeholders have to resolve and identify the discrepancies sooner than they lead to losses. One method of ensuring that the issues were communicated to stakeholders is by using various forms of communication, such as posters, meetings, gatherings, and committees among others.

Module 3 DQ2

The rationale or the main advantage of an evaluation tool is an evidence-based technology. Three approaches are used to evaluate and search the literature about the existing tools and model, analyze the best-practice examples. This shapes the overall framework and adapts the framework to an operational tool that will meet the needs of the evidence-based project. Evaluation tools are crucial tools that are used to make sure that certain research meets the criteria of the intended goal. Evaluation helps reduce the anticipated risks that may arise (Gaberson, 2006).

Module 4 DQ1

Everyone has to be aware of reliability and validity of data collection tools. This ensures that the outcome of the study will meet quality requirements. Data collection tools are used for program evaluation. They are used to collect all information that is required for a certain program. One is capable of using these tools to collect first-hand information that will present the effective evidence of a certain area of study (Haber, 2002). They are also used to collect the information of high quality. Some of the tools can be used to record and store data or information that will be used for reference in the future. Again, some tools are advanced in such a way that they are used to collect complex information that is hard to be collected in a normal way.

Module 4 DQ 2

Everyone has to ensure that there is reliability and validity of data collection tools. This ensures that the outcome of the study will meet quality requirements. Quantitative research project has to meet the requirement of the research study. The reason is that the final product produced will be effective and efficient. The other reason is that the final product produced will meet the customers’ needs. Reliability is also required so that one will acquire the best practices in conducting and implementing a research.

Module 5 DQ1

The importance of a dissemination plan is that helps clarify the value placed upon dissemination. Dissemination plan determines the goals of a research, i.e. document, and determines the goals of your dissemination effort for your project. The plan should have objectives and associate each goal with objectives. Again, it should have the content of the project, which users should possess. The plan should have barriers (Rees, 2010). This is where a person identifies potential barriers, which influence the targeted user. It deduces barriers on ways that reduce the barriers. The plan should define strategies for promoting awareness about the availability of research-based information. The plan should also stipulate or describe how dissemination activities have been  useful. The plan should also have a medium, through which the content of the message can be delivered. Finally, it should have sources that every potential user group is tied.

Module 5 DQ2

Based on the experience or the knowledge gained from research studies conducted, research process in nursing has promoted and dealt with barriers that are affecting the growth and the condition of hospitals. Research process is the main activity that should be conducted before initiating or starting any project. The process provides all the information that is required to start any project.

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