The appearance of terrorism in the society began many centuries ago. The changes in terrorism have been used as a tool to achieve social and political goals through oppression in international politics. The acts of terrorism have been changing with time, but they still remain an illegal threat to inflict fear. The strategies used for the planning of terrorism acts have also changed in relation to modern models of social political environment. The nature of the international relations and conflicts are the factors which contribute to terrorism resurgence. The social environment and government are different today. The earlier setting of governments did not have central governance, and this made it possible to use terrorism as the main method to afflict political change. The warfare was thus open to more players due to the lack of central authority and national armies.
Terrorism has been used by religious and non-religious organizations from the pre modern times. The Jewish in ancient times used terrorism as a way to resist against the Romans, and Muslims used terror to battle against the crusades of other religions. The ways which the nature of terrorism has taken are in conformity to the social and political changes. Religion and terrorism have remained companions because most acts of terror are based on religion. The trends of terrorism have not changed significantly over the centuries, however, the most significant change was witnessed after the 9/11 attacks in the U.S.
Terrorism has been in existence in the society over many centuries, because people have been searching for any reason to achieve the aspired objectives. The use of terror has been depicted by Athenians to secure Melos during a Peloponnesian war in 416 BCE by pointing out the neutrality of the Melos, which was unaccounted, even though they had not wedged war to Athenians. The knowledge of what is right was the question for the two equal powers, as the most powerful groups of people had to do what was entailed, while the weak had to suffer and encounter what they must have. The Athenians did not want neutral friendship, and thus it left the Melos with two options: to submit or be destroyed. The refusal of the Melos led to their city being besieged, killing all men and selling off women and children to slavery. This resulted in resettlement of Athenians colonists in Melos.
The good will of Christians had to instill the blessing of the belief, by which the Roman Catholic Church crusaded against evil. This belief and resulting actions were based on a constant threat as the crusade served to illustrate. This is clearly depicted by the Rome church against the sect in Albi, which destroyed ideals considered evil. The sect inflicted fear through massacre of people prompting the church to raise an army while issuing threats to those who did not join the force. Upon the sect burning 500 towns and killing the inhabitants, the leader of the church army descended on the sect killing all heretics together with believers to eliminate the existing threat. Terrorism in the middle ages was a form of religious extremism, but during the 18th century terrorism was imposition of justice through the presence of righteousness.
The French revolution was a reign of terror in the 1793-1794 and it is a sign that modern terrorism presents the concept of terrorism as a virtue to bring to end the rule of legitimate government. Terror was systematically used to suppress the government and hold more power than the rivals. The attainment of power by the revolutionist leader had seen hundreds of people sentenced to death with guillotine sound. The use of terrorism during the revolution was a mechanism to eliminate the counterrevolutionary elements in the society. This was used to save French from anarchy, military defeat and the suppression of hoarding and profiteering. Terror was used to eliminate the enemies of the state as it was perceived to be severe and prompt justice, which resulted in execution of more than 40 thousand people. This conformed to the reputed empires that lived through years because of use of terror. An example of terror strategy is the Assyrian empire in 900-600 BC.
The period from 1890 to 1910 was the time of active anarchy. The Russian anarchist sought to eliminate the rule of the then tsar Alexander II by assassination and ascend to rule Russia. The belief was spread that killing the Tsar and the European nobles was the sole way to bring the government down. The only way that the anarchists were able to carry their way in was through terrorism. This terror strategy was used selectively to terminate individuals and groups who were perceived to hold key position in government operations. This mode of terrorism was limited to ensure that only the victims were affected and innocent people are not hurt. This kind of terrorism did not survive due to the limited collateral damage. They introduced terrorism that had effective communication channels for the society in case people ask why terror.
The perpetrators of terrorism were provided with the opportunity by the society, which had the need to know the reasons to listen to the explanations. This, in turn, resorted in the concept of propagandas by the deeds culminated to the development of the modern terrorism as a mechanism to communicate. The assassination of the Austro-Hungarian archduke made the turning point in the history of terrorism that included separatist and anti-colonial terror in the British and the Ottoman empires.
The assassinations of kings and queens were the responsibility of the anarchists in Europe and Russia, as well as the setting of bombs on Wall Street in the U.S. The 1901 assassination of President McKinley and archduke was the famous act by anarchist that led to the Great War. The soviet revolution in 1917 by Lenin, who was succeeded by Stalin, had the expression of government-led terrorism, which was a tool to maintain order in government and in the country. The strategy of terror was used for the entire population as opposed to its previous usage against enemies. It was perceived that the enhancement of societal building was done through governmental control, and thus use of fear was the motivational factor for people to comply with the operations of the ruling class. Terror is and was employed to organize and control the society.