Opportunities for Policy on Climate Change essay

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Christopher et al. (2008) conducted a study of current practices and future opportunities for policy on climate change and invasive species. Their research is based on the argument that design, measure and implementation of climate changes policy in the U.S should consider the impact of invasive species more specifically; meaning that policies on invasive species should address the consequences of climate change. They found the three main agendas that the policies should be based on. First the policies should be based on the link between climate change and invasive species. Secondly, they should indentify policies on climate changes that have negative effects on invasive species management. Thirdly, the policies should identify possible areas where they could obtain benefit from synergies between invasive-species management and climate changes.

Carl & Kirk (2008) conducted a study on Managing Invasive Aquatic Plants in a Changing System: Strategic Consideration of Ecosystem Services. They found that climate changes are likely to increase strain for most plants found in the coastal areas. In most of thelargest portions along the coast of North America, environmental anthropogenic changes have degraded the habitat posing threats to the community setup of inundated marine grass beds and tidal marshes. These communities have historically provided prospective loss of ecological services, which has been a long standing principle for antagonistic method to control the invading plants like australis, Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmetis. Invasive types such as H. verticillata and P. australis have had more to proof on ecological services that propose that as strain increases, it would be wise to employ a more realistic approach in regard to the impact that these species have on coastal ecosystems. The remarkable flexibility of these varieties allows to control attempts and their aggressive achievement, and relative vitality in harassed systems and the ability to offer at least some valuable services, coalesce to propose some enveloping varieties that may be helpful in managing the coastal ecological unit.   

Gordon & Doria (1998) carried out a study on Effects of Invasive, Non-indigenous Plant Species on Ecosystem Processes. In this research, it was concluded that individual varieties of plants varieties that adjust ecosystem characteristics have habitually been considered unusual in natural ecosystems. They conjectured that many insidious non-indigenous species do modify these characteristic at various scales. The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council considered the non-indigenous species of plants to be the most invasive varieties in Florida during the period of examining literature review. The properties of various ecological units of hydrology, biogeochemistry, disturbance and geomorphology showed that out of a total of 31 varieties, 20-31 of them caused potential alteration of the ecosystem properties. When a study was carried out on characteristics that show greater competitive capacity of invasive species at population level, the results showed that 13-24, which is 42-77% of the included varieties manifested properties that are able to modify natural structures at both community population and ecosystem scales. This analysis revealed that alteration of the ecological unit might be considerably usual in the invasive non-indigenous varieties. Nevertheless, much of the recent information is unreliable. Pragmatic research that seeks to examine the impact of varieties on ecological unit and small-scale means are essential, and such a research may be more appropriate on species that are highly invasive. Apart from normalizing the global plants, the non-indigenous varieties may also regulate the local plants through escalating representation of ruderal species. Site restoration will likely need both recovery of processes and control of invaders, where there is alteration of ecosystem processes.

More study on this subject was conducted by Nicholas & Stuart. Their research majored on study of Climate Change and Deepening of the North Sea Fish Assemblage: A Biotic Indicator of Warming Seas. It is still not clear whether there are methodical and rational assemblage-wide reactions to climate change, which would act as an indicator to represent the varying biological state. The warming rate of European shelf seas is higher than the adjoining land masses, and quicker than global standard. Year after year, a distributional response exploration is conducted in North Sea deep sea fishes on temperature variation in a period of 25 years, between 1980 and 2004. On an annual survey to monitor fish, the depth distributions and latitudinal centers of 28 fishes were projected from 2013 spices-abundance location data. Individual reactions in terms of varieties were combined into 19 assemblages that reflected the structure (thermal predilection and array), ecosystem (patterns that are abundance occupancy and body size), biogeography (southern, northern and range-presence boundaries), and vulnerability to human factors (bycatch, fishery target and non-target varieties). The bottom temperatures of the Northern Sea winter have escalated by 1.6 degrees Centigrade within 25 years, with only one degree rise in 198820131989. Periodically, the fish assemblage demarsal went deep by 3.6 meter decade 22121 and most assemblages were coherent to the deepening. There was diverse latitudinal reaction to warming and this shows (1) the average latitude of abundant shifts northwards, (2) a southward move of considerable small, copious species in the south with occupancy limits and a northern range periphery in the North Sea. When the bottom-dwelling fish of the North Sea goes to the deep, this is in response to the change of climate as terrestrial species move upwards to higher altitudes. The responses of assemblage-level depth and latitudinal reactions co-vary with temperature and environmental inconsistency in a way that indicates the effect of climate change. When the demersal fish deepens in reaction to temperature change, this could indicate biotic impact of climate change in the North Sea and the rest of semi-enclosed seas. 

Another research conducted by Mueller and Hellman suggested that intentional movements of trans-locating species may give rise to new invasive species in case of uncontrolled introductions which would cause economic or ecologic harm. They used intra-continental invasive species in comparison with intercontinental species in an effort to determine the one that was the most prevalent. The intra-continental were less frequent compared with invasions from other continents. They concluded that there is a low risk of assisted migration (AM) but greater impacts would be experienced in case of assisted species turning into invasive species.

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