Obesity

Obesity is a health care impairment that is a result of an excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat. The last one is the primary source of stored energy. It also secretes many hormones and cytokines. An excess central fat deposition may lead to morbidity and mortality. Increased body weight can become the main reason of diabetes, certain forms of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, psychological and social problems. The treatment of obesity and associated diseases is rather costly and has a high failure rate. Obesity among adult and children has dramatically increased over the last few decades. Therefore, this problem requires further discussion.

Symptoms

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Obesity may occur in individuals when they cannot use stored energy. When a person does not use it, the body continues to store it every day. As a result, a person begins to gain too much fat. Great body fat may also be a consequence of poor physical activity. McMillan (2012) assumes that the first symptom of obesity is increased body weight in relation to height. It can progress from early childhood due to the lack of activity of children who prefer to spend their times in front of their computers instead of physical activity. However, many findings reveal that overweight people are not always obese. A striking example of this fact is sportsmen (rugby or football players) that can look fat, but their body mass index is within recommended norms (Crawford et al., 2011).

Symptoms, which accompany obesity, may include the following features: increased risk of falls and accidents, reduced physical ability, impaired heat resistance, etc. Overweight persons break their legs or arms more often than others due to some awkward movements. This fact can become a reason for reduced physical agility. Thus, obese people look clumsy because they cannot move as quickly as individuals with normal body mass index. It is also hard for them to endure the hot weather, and they feel sick because of heat. Many studies reported that obesity symptoms depend on the body mass. Therefore, the greater the level of obesity, the more likely that someone will have complications (McMillan, 2012). Clinical symptoms of long-term obesity may include hypertension and patients suffer from high blood pressure and terrible headaches. Furthermore, some genetic disorder may lead to obesity too. For example, Prader-Willi syndrome is associated with obesity because patients are always looking for food feeling hungry day and night (Agrawal, 2015). The literature review has shown that obesity may occur because of genetics, pregnancy risks including complicated delivery, increased toxemia of pregnancy, etc. (McMillan, 2012).

Treatment

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Obesity treatment focuses on the weight loss with the purpose to decrease energy intake, modify personal behavior, increase physical activity, etc. Thus, to reduce energy intake, a patient should keep dieting controlling his or her calories. The better results could be received if an obese person will eat more healthy food including fruits and vegetables that can improve their digesting. Crawford et al. (2011) suggest that obese individuals should keep under control their daily fat intake and balance protein. Diets usually require restrictions of 500 to 100 kilocalories a day from an average intake that allows losing one-two pounds a week (Mahmood & Arulkumaran, 2012). Patients should understand that it is important to reduce cholesterol, saturated fat, and sodium, as well as change eating habits. For example, obese patients should eat more food high in fiber and avoid junk food beverages such as hamburger, pizza, Coca-Cola, etc. Usually, people with obesity eat an enormous amount of food because they feel hungry.

One of the best ways to overcome or just eliminate this is to switch their attention to some other activities such as swimming, jogging, visiting gyms, etc. McMillan (2012) believes that moderate exercises for 30-60 minutes are very helpful and can reduce weight practicing daily exercises. The current lifestyle, which encourages people to use transportation, prevents them from walking, and it could be a good idea to walk every day: if obese people practice daily walking or jogging in their neighboring area, it will provide good results. Many findings reveal that traditional treatment of obesity also includes drug therapy that blocks absorption of dietary fat and sibutramine that inhibits appetite (Crawford et al., 2011). Some individuals use surgery, but it may have serious complications. However, those who prefer this kind of treatment can take, for example, vertical banded gastroplasty that helps reduce the stomach size. Thus, this procedure is a restrictive operation that creates a stomach pouch with a one-centimeter hole in its bottom to control the amount of food that flows into the gastrointestinal tract (Mahmood & Arulkumaran, 2012).

Another type of treatment is liposuction, cosmetic procedure that removes fat deposits from the hips, thighs, back, arms, or chin. This kind of treatment is rather costly, and it carries a high risk of infections or other complications. Unfortunately, clinical weight-reduction therapy has achieved only limited success. On the other hand, some patients effectively use weight, others lose small amounts, and some can prevent further weight gain. However, there are still many patients who continue to gain weight.

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Complications

Many findings reveal that obesity is not acceptable in some social circles (McMillan, 2012). Therefore, its presence may become an issue of social discrimination followed by feelings of guilt and psychological inadequacy. If obesity is severe, it can impair musculoskeletal and mobility functions. However, the major health consequences of obesity lie in the metabolic sphere. The metabolic abnormalities induced by obesity frequently contribute to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, and fatty liver, etc. Agrawal (2015) reported that of particular importance for cardiovascular risk, obesity is almost always present in persons who experience the metabolic syndrome. Admittedly, in the United States, this syndrome is emerging as a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. In addition, obesity commonly precedes the development of type 2 diabetes.

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