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Personnel Management and Human Resource Management


According to the management study guide, the terms human resource management and the traditional personnel management are hard to differentiate. The guide further indicates that personnel management office in a firm ensured that the employee welfare is taken care of, and further the officer intercedes between the employees and management. On the other side, human resource management, which is a more recent, refers to the function connected with ensuring management objectives are fulfilled while at the same time making sure that human resources are taken care of(management study 2013). Henderson, 2008, broadly defines human resource management as all decisions and actions of management that will directly influence or affect people as part of organizations rather than jobholders (Henderson, 2008). The main objective of the paper is to confer the contrast between human resource management and personnel management.


In differentiating between the two, two models of human resource management are evaluated. The two models are “hard HRM model” and the “soft HRM model.” The hard HRM lays much emphasis on quantitative and strategic aspects of management as key aspects in economic factors of production. On the other hand, soft HRM model emphasizes on communication, motivation, and leadership skills (Henderson 2008). The differences between personnel and human resource management are considered within the characteristics of these two models. These include strategic nature and organization structure.


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Strategic Nature

Personnel management usually works on short time magnitudes, which deals with dealing with immediate problems such as urgent shortage in staffs or local industrial relations. It does not take long-term management issues of people. In human resource management, all the issues and their necessities are defined as a necessity of the strategy, which is coherent with it and also informed by and supported by the business strategy of the organization. Psychological contract is neither a legal contract nor a written statement of employment terms and conditions (Henderson 2008). This purely exists in the mentality of the employees and their employers and is wholly unwritten. It is merely an expression of beliefs held by both the employer and his employee on what is expected from either of the sides.

Based on this contract, personnel management assumes compliance where the employees do what they are told  and expected. The management has the capability of determining what the employees are required to do and enforce that with the least compliance issues. On the other hand, HRM assumes that employees will be positive and willfully committed. This is because more is expected from the employees and it is not wise for the management to define the scope of what is required of employees. Therefore, the employees must use their own judgments and initiative and must uplift their knowledge bases. On job design, personnel management jobs are designed with emphasis on scientific management principles (Deeprose 2007). HRM approach involves employees being allowed to use self-control, exercise on issues connected with work and organizational discipline, and not be driven by systems and directions of the management. Similarly, initiatives such as teamwork are more common in HRM and PM.

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Organizational Structure

In HRM, there is more commitment to work, and there is less hierarchical and more flexible structures and featuring less management levels. It is also a flexible in matters concerning employees. PM will tend to be hierarchical and bureaucratic. On remuneration, personnel management is more rigid to this approach having pay scales, which are associated with the hierarchical organizational structures. Through the collective bargaining procedures, the pay scales of non-managerial employees are agreed. HRM takes the approach of rewarding the contribution of individuals and teams. It uses the appraisals and performance monitoring through setting base rates from the market instead of using collective bargaining. In the staff recruitment, complex methods such as psychometric testing, psychological profiling and assessment centers are often used in personnel management. These procedures are used in recruitment of senior executives of the organizations. Simpler and less costly methods are used in the recruitment of non-managerial staff. In HRM, these methods are used in the recruitment of all employees or partly recruitment of the core employees.

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Training and development of employees in personnel management is viewed as cost, which should be minimized. Normally commitment to training is negligible due to the fear of employers that trained staff will be poached. HRM employs continuous development of all employees since they are seen as possessors and drivers of the strategic competencies of the organization. In employee relations perspective, personnel management operates in unusable environment. In HRM, the relationship is more individualistic in dealing with the collective workforce. This has been viewed mostly in the reduction of trade unions and establishment of performance related rewarding systems. The organization function in personnel management serves in a specialist manner and many respects that deal with employee relations in line with the management. This creates large and rather bureaucratic personnel departments. The HRM stresses on people management as a part of wide organization management.

In the welfare issues, personnel manager in PM is responsible for problems of employees. This leads to an ambiguous system in matters regarding welfare. HRM does not have an explicitly welfare role (Henderson, 2008). In conclusion, there is a wide similarity between PM and HRM. However, HRM is like anadvancement of the traditional PM.

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Recruitment of Employees

According to the New York University website, the recruitment of employees takes a seven-step procedure. This procedure includes a review of the job description provided by hiring organizations and potential employees. This description should be real in describing the requirements and duties of the position being filled. The hiring manager should furnish accurate descriptions and duties of the job, focus on the language for advertisement and interview questions. Moreover, provide to the potential employee with current and future foundations on performance evaluation and career growth (New York University 2013).

Development of recruitment strategy; this includes the methods that will be included in making the information available to potential employees. If an organization maintains a database of applications, a review to these may be done. If not this, then a suitable mode may be chosen to relay this information. An ad describing the position and its requirements may be drafted. Then, suitable media such as the use of Internet or print media may be used. Review and sorting of resumes and applications should be done. The requirements of the job in terms of experience, education, and skills and even salary requirements will aid in choosing the resumes or applications. Either resumes with errors or typos will be weeded out and especially when the job requires good reading and proofing skills.

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Conducting Telephone Interviews

If there is no need in personal meetings, telephone interviews will be useful to get the first impression and on matters that need clarification such as education credentials and other job requirements that need clarification before the interview. It provides for a chance to have an informal engagement. Following the telephone interview, a face-to-face interview may be scheduled. Further, some details as to what is expected of the employee and instructions on the location of the organization are provided. Likewise based on this interview the hiring manager may decide not to schedule a face-to-face interview or first interview others before coming into conclusion of having a face-to-face interview.

In-person interview process is aimed at narrowing down  the initial group that was selected. Both parties in this process are able to garner information about each other. This is done through having first to design interview questions in advance. The questions should be original and less formulaic to avoid mechanical answering of questions. The questions must focus on job related issues and mostly on the capability of the individual to dispense the duties of the job. They should not be prejudicial to the applicant in terms of their race, gender or any other distinguishing character.  Another good point is the place where the interviewing process is conducted. It is wise that the hiring manager consults within the department. The applicant can get a chance to talk to people in the higher levels of management. This brings out a chance to develop new insights about the applicant that may have been missed during the initial interview.

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Making the final decision is reached after evaluating the potential of the applicant in terms of skills, experience, knowledge, and abilities to perform the core duties of the job. Moreover, the motivation of the applicant to perform the roles of the job is analyzed. Finally, the question of as to whether the applicant fits to the job must be well answered. In this process, the hiring team must crosscheck the references issued by the applicant. This helps to ensure that the employer will not be held liable of their employees past acts. Further reference checking helps the employer to get a broader picture of the employee’s ability, skills, and working habits. All this is to make sure that the right individual is employed for the position. Making the offer and closing the process after the whole process is complete, candidates who are not selected are notified as a matter of courtesy. The successful candidates are notified and invited for the required paper work. After this, the employee is undertaken through training and orientation on the job.

Reward, Motivate, and Retain Employees

Human resource managers have the task of finding various ways of retaining the employees. The retention of the employees is tremendously vital in order to maintain the relationship with the client. Again, this vice keep training cost and recruiting in line. Once a given organization loses an experienced employee, it leads to an extensive loss or cost to your business. The main issue to employee retention and satisfaction is that they are established on strong management practices and strong leadership (Deeprose 2007). These practices require efficient and effective management practices and good leadership skills. Adequate training and good operating system of a business can boost the retention and motivation of the employees. In the modern society, many businesses have developed various mechanisms that are used to make sure that their employees are not suffering and are working in good conditions. It is the obligation of the HR manager of the company to provide the required tools and support so that employees can work efficientlythat will be to the benefit of the company.  The manager should formulate a good performance and compensation plan to encourage customers to build the firm. This plan ensures that the employees are paid based on their hard work to the company. Normally, they are rewarded based on the individual efforts and contribution towards the success of the business (Rye 2002).

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Nevertheless, the employees are supposed to be put in a situation where they are working in a good working environment and a constructive corporate culture, which many employees need more than the money. Human resource manager should have good communication skills and recognition skills so that he can be capable of retaining the employees. Again, he should be responsible for screening fresh employees to ensure that they fit in the business operation and prevent future closure of the business. It is an obligation of the HR manager and the entire governing body of any business to ensure that good operation methods are installed so that the business can successfully fulfill its objectives. The decision makers in any organization should formulate various procedures and standards that every employee is supposed to be acquainted with so that they can handle the daily operation of the enterprise in the right way.

The failure to notify them on these policies may lead to closure of the business, which would be unpleasant. According to Michael Gerber, human resource managers should understand the significance of the operating methods that determine the maintenance and the growth of the business. Again, written operation methods of any company can contribute to the retention and motivation of the employees. The other thing that human resource manger ought to know is the legal employment agreement that ensures  there is a meeting of minds between all the parties involved in the business. Moreover, the agreement makes sure that there is an exceptionally good relationship between all the parties involved. It indicates their terms, procedures, policies, compensation, termination, responsibilities, and their duties.  The sample of the employment agreement is normally included in the  policies and procedure manuals, which ensures that the employees fully understand their operations in the business. The employees should be made acquainted with this information so that they can be able to raise their problems and see them solved. Therefore, the failure of the human resource manager to address this issue would lead to the closure of the business, which is not the objective of the business.

Again, the organization should formulate ways that can contribute to the growth of the business by employing various mechanisms that could foster forward movement of the ant firm. For example, human resource manager should ensure that he there is frequent training of employees who should appreciate it to be capable of obtaining an excellent relationship with the manager or the people involved in making a decision on the company. They should be given the authority to act in the best interest of the business (Hume 2010). Through this practice, they gain confidence, skills, which they use to make sound decisions to the benefit of the company. The inclusion of the employees in decision-making is a remarkably essential factor that can facilitate and contribute to a good working condition of the business. It is evident that this factor led to the closure of Disney, which is now an excellent company in that the employees were frustrated, i.e. they were not happy with the implementation of the policies and procedures of the company. According to the research study conducted by Human Resource Corporation, a large number of employees get frustrated due to the inadequate training that is offered to them.

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On the contrary to the underperforming businesses, excellent businesses offer a greater appreciation and support to its employees. This is essential since the employees are capable of getting a person to answer their questions and help them. Therefore, human resource manager should provide adequate support to the employees so that he can booster their morale. Once this is done, the manager increases the chances of the employees staying longer than their wish. Moreover, it is the duty of the HR manager to compensate employees in their work so that they can get encouraged in performing their job in the best way (Hume 2010). The rewarding should be done based on the performance of the employees, so they are motivated and work in the best way. Again, they should get the firms benefit, i.e. putting benefits into good competitive circumstances can retain employees on seasonal bases and attract potential employers.

It is the job of any business to reward the employees for their good work. This promotes the business in that they are able to advance their performance. Through this, the employees improve their behaviors that ensure an improvement of the business. Another factor that can encourage the retention of the employees is the good communication skills that are often used in management. Again, good leadership can promote the retention of the employees is to have a good working environment (Canada 2010). For example, an enormous company such as South West Airline has formulated innovative ways for employees to havefan. Finally, employees should have policies that ensure that there is a good office environment.

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Cessation of Employment

This refers to the procedures that are followed when an employee decides to leave a job. In this case, an employee is any person who offers services for other people in return for compensation. Employees may leave a job because of such factors like health, dismissal, retirement, and reassignment among others. During this process, payment to employees must be paid in full in a reasonable period after the demand has been forwarded. In case of overcompensation, there is a right to withhold to the authorities. It is clear that employment comprises of provisions based on vacations cessation on employment holds the same status as the earned wages (Kudrov 1995).

In respect to cessation, actions are taken for any unpaid wages, and there are no deductions done by the employer as set up. Any counter claim for money that was allegedly due acts as the compensation done to the damages that might have been conducted by the employee on the employer’s property. Actions of all unpaid wages are brought forward to the affected employees by the Labor department. Therefore, any employer who violates these rules remains liable to a certain amount of unpaid wages (Kudrov,1995). In addition, any judgment done favoring the employees includes certain rates on the interest. There is an amount that doubles the amount of wages that are liquidities damages and suit cost. They include attorney’s charges.

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This cessation policy intends to bring out the following. Ensuring that there are employees on a fixed term as well as contracts on a basis where there is the announcement of available vacancies. Meetings that are arranged to talk about the employment termination are organized in line with this cessation policy (Ativanichayapong 1990). The correct notice period is issued to employees who hold their employment with the trust. It is required that staff who quits their employment in lime with the trust fills in an exit questionnaire. The way termination procedural mechanism in cessation employment handled is with considerable care in order to ensure that there is no stress for all employees. The cessation mechanism is aimed at ensuring that satisfaction to both the employees and the employer as job termination is concerned.



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