Decision-Making Process

Managers, leaders and other parties who belong to the organization frequently make their decisions. The decision-making processes have various factors. They should be considered from an environmental angle and attributes that relate to the manager/decision-maker. 

Basic Steps in Planning Process

There are several steps characterizing the process of making decisions. First, it is relevant to identify the areas that need some changes. For this reason the problem or problematic area should be identified. It encompasses the kind of decision to be made. The other step relates to gathering important information. In order to make a decision, a person must identify the information needed, choose its sources, pick it, thus one will be able to apply it. The third step includes identifying alternatives (Salaman, 2002). This phase gives an opportunity to define all ways of action and then to choose the best path or paths that fit the precise situation or problem.

The fourth step relates to the evidence evaluation. It includes making comparisons of all the information gathered. A manager is empowered to choose the best information that fits the problem or situation by comparing this evidence. This part may take more time than the other processes as one analyzes and explores the data in order to make an effective decision. The fifth step comprises of choosing among the alternatives. This statement means that the manager has finished weighing the options and he is ready to pick the most appropriate alternative. This step is closely related to the previous one (Salaman, 2002).

The sixth step is connected with taking action. At this stage the manager applies or implements the best alternative chosen. The next step gives the manager an opportunity to review consequences and decisions. This part encompasses the situation where the manager realizes the decision’s repercussions. He identifies whether the problem has been solved, hence the outcomes can be evaluated (Salaman, 2002). If the goal is not achieved, he/she should go through the process mentioned above. The cycle should take place until the whole issue or problem is handled satisfactorily.  

Manager’s Personal Attributes

The manager’s personal attributes have a significant impact on the process of making decisions, hence having an impact on the final decision made. For example, an impatient manager may perform poorly on second, third and fourth steps of the process. Such managers may not be diligent enough to do an extensive research on an issue or challenge. The qualified manager with skills of handling teams may attract greater number of people to this process. Some decisions need brainstorming; hence the relevance of team members is important (Renailda & Veerbeek, 2004). Positively influencing managers tend to make more effective decisions than negatively persuading ones.

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A manager’s activity can be also influenced by the people surrounding him or her. If a manager has a strong supporting team surrounding him/her, he/she tends to make right decisions in comparison to the one with no support system. This requires the challenging and hardworking members of the team.  Consequently, an innovative manager can take a different approach towards the situation in comparison to one who is conformed to the norm.   

Quality-Productivity-Profitability and the Decisions Making Process

From an environmental perspective, the factors surrounding the manager can affect the way he/she makes a decision. Laws and policies can affect the decision made by the manager and the process as a whole. Various laws and policies govern diverse regions. It may affect organizations in companies situated within different geographical boundaries even though they belong to the same industry. Moreover, the people’s perception of the situation at hand in addition to the culture in which the decision is made is also of relevance (Lee et al., 2003). For example, the decision that is working in an organization’s branch in US may not be appropriate for the same branch in China.

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Quality and productivity affect profitability. They mainly have an impact on each other. Quality products tend to attract a market, which impacts on increase in productivity. Increase in sales, thus makes the revenues higher. The latter is likely can lead to increase profit (Grunig & Kuhn, 2005). When taking into account the steps in the process of making a decision, quality should be considered. When choosing the other option after collecting information, the alternative should improve quality as one of its attributes. This will consequently have its impact on productivity, hence profitability.

However, it is relevant to understand that profitability decrease may not necessarily lead to the reduction of productivity and quality. In other scenarios, the expected outcome after maintain quality may not lead to productivity and profitability (Grunig & Kuhn, 2005). The decision-making process should, therefore, consider these attributes in order to make decisions than to make an impact.

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The decision-making process is characterized with seven steps. The first one identifies the issue or problematic area, thus the need for decisions. The second relates to gathering significant information. The third one is about identifying alternatives. The fourth is connected with weighing evidence while the fifth relates to choosing among the alternatives. While the sixth encompasses taking action, the seventh one reviews consequences and decisions. The manager’s personal attributes are also relevant as well as the environmental factors. The process can be used in case of handling the quality-productivity-profitability concept.

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