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Developing Instructional Strategies and Materials

The trainer will assure the students that there will be enough time to learn, discuss and ask questions. The trainer will focus more on interactive mode of teaching to let proper participation of all students and offer support to slow learners. The trainer will let the student understand the importance of good performance in this course since it will be used to appraise them. The students will be equipped with skills on laboratory analysis of color of drinking water. This will help them advance careers in water quality analysis.


The trainees will be served with the goal and the objectives of the training. These will be included in their pre training package. Trainees at the end of this course should be able to analyzewater color and turbidity and match it with national standard and the results should match with various studies in the department. The students will be informed how accurate and precise water color and turbidity analysis is and its industrial application. Pre-requisite skills: there will be a pre-training package for trainees which will give them prior information concerning the entry knowledge and skills that are vital for the training. The students will be offered a test preceding instruction to show their understanding of these skills. The trainer will demonstrate to the students how the analysis will be done according to standard operational procedures.


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Trainees will be supplied a pre-test which to test their understanding on water color and turbidity. A pre-test shall include the necessary skills required for entry requirements. They shall be provided with cobalt chloride crystals, 2M Nitric acid, 2M hydrochloric acid, potassium Chloroplatinate as well as distilled water. Skills required for mixing these reagents will be tested.


Both the pretest and posttest will carry the same procedures and will be used to test the knowledge impacted on the trainees, the quality of training. Students will be given the same reagents but a different water samples for analysis. Posttest will help in evaluating the training progress and understanding on the concepts used in water color analysis.

Follow-up Activities


Students experiencing difficulty in understanding the information through materials provided will be given more time to exercise using lovibond comparator as a quick method to test color. Additional learning hours have been added to cater for remedial teaching and lab practice lessons to enhance mastery in water quality analysis.

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Students who perform well and show ability on their post test will be given a chance to have additional learning on water color and turbidity analysis in the national laboratory water quality specialist. These students will be given advanced training on water quality analysis using analysis software. It will equip them with skills on automation since most tests in future will be automated.

Memory Aid

All learners will be provided with a layered chart showing the criteria for classifying water turbidity and color. They will also use computerized results of indices to assist in assessment during analysis. All laboratory specimens will be available to all students for revision and group discussion purposes .The results of past analysis will be provided to students to help them in comparing their results and revision. Charts containing standardized expected results shall be provided to the students for referrals.


The information will be transmitted to the learners with ease since the learning materials and guidelines are related to their course work. They are expected to perform laboratory analysis on daily basis. This will help them match their training with the work they will be performing. They will be given hand outs and soft copy notes. Additional learning hours has been added to cater for remedial teaching and practical lessons to boost their performance. Regular assessments will be conducted by the trainers to analyze the degree of information perceived by the students. It should be noted that laboratory recommendations by analytical professionals is very vital in real situations and accurate instructions should be put into place.

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Instructional Strategies for Objectives

Information presentation

Objective 1: students should be able to analyze the color of water using the given chemical reagents with the help of a Lovibond comparator. They should be able to prepare aqua-regia by mixing one part of concentrated nitric acid with three p[arts of concentrated hydrochloric acid. 1.245g of potassium Chloroplatinate and 1.0g of cobalt chloride should be dissolved in distilled water and diluted to one litre. This makes 5000 hazen units. A set of color of 5, 10, 15,20,30,35, 40, 60 and 70 should be prepared by diluting the stock solution in water and protected from evaporation and contamination. When color is less than 5 hazen units, it should be reported difficult to match. The results of color determination are made in whole numbers.

  1. Is done early as possible after collection.
  2. Lovibond comparator can be used as quick method of determining water color.

Example: students will be shown good solutions of hazen solutions and samples of poorly prepared hazen solutions

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Student participation: students will be required to prepare to form groups and prepare their own standard solutions.

Feedback: the students will compare their solutions with the standards provided by the trainer.

Objective 2: students should be able to analyze turbidity of water. Turbidity will be measured by an optical turbidity meter after calibration with turbidity standards.

Objective 3: students should be able to prepare formazin standards. 5g or reagent grade hydrazine sulphate should be dissolved in about 400mls of distilled water and 50mg pure hexathyllenetetraamine be dissolved in about 400ml of distilled water. The two solutions should then be poured in a one litre volumetric flask and dilute to volume with dilute water. The solution should be left t stand for 48hrs at 20-220 C during this time the suspension developed and should be mixed thoroughly and the standards prepared.

Example: the trainer shall demonstrate the experiment before the students conduct their trials. Proper guidelines should be given to reduce wastage of chemicals. Formazin is a dangerous chemical and safety precautions should be put into place.

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Student’s participation: students will form groups and conduct this experiment

Feedback:  formazin solution is used to analyze the amount of fluorine in water. The prepared solutions should not differ from standard solutions by a big margin.

Identification, Descriptions & Rationale:


The method of facilitating training to students is use of demonstrations, practical experiments, discussions and lectures through power point presentation slides. More learning methods are important because students internalize whatever they are taught especially if done practically. Psychomotor skills were enhanced with demonstrations from the trainer as well as practical approach in the laboratory. Students had the chance of analyzing their results with the pretest and post test assessment. 


Students are advised to use the industrial equipment which they will use to perform their jobs. This will offer them skills and experience hence a smooth transition to the job market. It is imperative they have the real skills that will make them attractive to employers.

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The trainees will be trained in a real working situation especially use of lovibond comparator machines. Exemption to this kind of environment set up will be the laboratory and classwork. The two are conducive for learning and receiving instructions.



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