What are the Central Events and Issues Concerning American Indian Cultures and Society between 1492 and the Contemporary Period

In 1492, Christopher Columbus first came to America and met the Native Americans. In the year 1513, Leon had an encounter with the Calusa Indians and he captured four warriors. The first permanent European settlement happens in the year 1565. This started a chain of events that affected American Indian culture and society.

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In 1607, the first permanent English colony was established in Jamestown, Virginia and in 1611 the first Jesuits were sent to New France. In 1622, the first Indian uprising took place in the English colony in Virginia. Pequot War, French and Indian Wars were some important wars taken place at that time. In 1768, the British gave back the control of the colonies and in 1769 the Spanish people occupied California and established their first missions. In 1824 Bureau of Indian Affairs was established and in 1830, Indian removal Act was passed by Congress. The administrative structure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was amplified. Different types of trade and intercourse acts, along with the prohibition of the sale of intoxicants to the Indians were controlled. They were also prohibited from traveling anywhere. In 1837, there was a huge smallpox epidemic in the plain lands. Fort Laramie Treaty was another very important point in the history. From 1861 to 65, the Civil War was on in United States of America. The Union pacific railroad was made in between 1865 to 69 and in 1867 and USA buys Alaska. From 1892 to 1897, more laws were passed for schools and all the Indian citizens. But the federal supports were withdrawn from the schools.


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However, in 1924, all the Indians were declared citizens ofAmerica. In 1934 Wheeler-Howard Act was passed to protect the Native American culture. From 1969, the American Indian Movement or AIM started to form. Another very important act was the American Indian religious Freedom Act in the year 1979 and this enabled them to practice their culture freely.


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