Chapter I: the book begin with an introductory part where its make definition of the main fields of the subject. The work begins by defining or otherwise describing the dimensions of the Middle East region. As the authors introduce their work, the tried to unveil that term Middle East is used to refer to a larger part that included some of the Africa countries like Egypt. In addition, the work gives several meaning of the term history, while at the same time tries to its importance to the community. It achieves this through the defining of its numerous dimensions of study such as understanding the development of early civilization, the early cultural practices which were in used in times of the past generations. While writers have a clear knowledge of the wide history dimension such having the insight of the early government or ruling of the community, the authors concentrates on civilization, and more specifically of the Islamic civilization as its intimately linked outside world. It is in this sense the chapter appear to deal with general introduction on history on the religious and cultural issues based on the Islamic world. A number of things such as clothing, sports and others are revealed as to have originated from the Middle East. Furthermore, Middle East not located in the thickets of forest. Its climatology analysis is typically of desert type with numerous areas which also experiences the semi-desert climatic conditions. There are some more favorable parts for human inhabitants influenced mainly by the precipitation from the Mediterranean depression (Goldschmidt and Davidson, 7)
Chapter II: In the second chapter, Middle East is depicted as a region which had grown and developed even prior to the established of Muhammad. It’s in the part where most early Middle East developments are disclosed. Though, it’s believed that human life began in Africa, particularly in Egypt which is part of the Middle East in accordance to the early definition, most of the historical breakthroughs are believed to have been pioneered in the modern Middle East region. This part shows that it’s a region where most of the modern Agricultural activities begun. Domestication of wild animals as well as subsistence farming was first pioneered in the region. In the Fertile Crescent land that lies to the eastern side of the Mediterranean were found two main rivers Euphrates and Tigris. These rivers together with other human factors were greatly contributed to the early agricultural development in the regions. In additional to the rich agricultural inventions, numerous other factors which led to the early development of the area include the kind of leadership or ruling in the communities. It was a time when there were numerous social unrests. This generally erupted from the stirring up of war among different communities. The often upheavals were triggered or mostly initiated by the proudly kings in the search of community honor and respect. However, having war victory had greater positive impact to the community. It acted as means through which people from the society would have greater social interaction by celebrating the king’s victory in the war. (Goldschmidt and Davidson, 15)
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Chapter III. The work in this chapter is a canon which is integrates both religious and political subject of Muhammad. After long period of the people in the Middle East having greater development accompanied by many problems on rule and governance, it emerges the legend that connects the Ethiopians and the Yemen. It was at the mid of the first century, when the Ethiopians left for Mecca by the elephant train as the natural perils were more than unbearable. The people had suffered heavily from smallpox out break which had been preceded by the flurry of stones released from flight birds. The withdrawal of the Ethiopian army from the Middle East aroused a lot of joy to the inhabitants in Mecca, making the events of those days to be memorable on yearly occasion. The narration also gives part of the biography of Muhammad, which suggests that he was also conceived in the same year just after some months of his father’s pass away. It elucidates Muhammad’s relationships with human being and the supernatural role which he played in the community. Undoubtedly, Muhammad was the leader to of the community the war besides being the peace maker and prophet to the society. The works not only express the childhood of Muhammad and his development to become the most prominent prophet in the Islamic religion, but also tries to show how Muhammad grew to become a great political leader. (Goldschmidt and Davidson, 25).
Chapter IV: This is a chapter that contains more or less the works and practices of the Islamic religions. It opens with puzzling questions such as the way people think of the Islam and its historical background. As the chapter continues to unveil its contents, it endeavors to answer such question. First and foremost, Islamic as religion is founds on its beliefs like any other religion. This is shown by individual’s submission to supernatural (Allah) who is above all things, organic and non-organic or living and non-living. Both faunal and floral has the obligation of submitting to the commands of the Allah. The core belief revealed in this part is that submission to the will, worshipping as well as acceptance of punishments and rewards are the main defining features or factors of a Muslim. This defines supernatural as omnipotent. More so, the authors elucidates on the five pillars of Islamic. These include faith which is believed to be the greatest pillar of all the five pillars. Others are prayer which is define as the act of communicating directly with the creator, the almsgiving- which the third holds that everything does not belong to human being but to the supernatural (Allah). The fourth one is Fasting which is done during days of Ramadan as act of denying the body world pleasure such food for the purpose of purification. Finally is the Pilgrimage which is defined as a holy Journey to the city Mecca is also important pillar in the life of a Muslim (Goldschmidt and Davidson, 38). .
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Chapter V- it is in this portion of Davidson and his colleague that we focus on the progresses that took place after the demise of Muhammad. A great void was established when Muhammad die. Throughout his life, he had acted as the commander of the military, the God’s messenger and the provider of Islamic followers. Despite having played the major role and almost every responsibility that the community needed, the successors took the challenges and led the community after his death. Through the different leaders, the choosing of a Islamic leaders became a major problems with different tribes in the region becoming rivals. The ansar were not in agreement with the medinans, however, this did hinder the establishment of medina as city. Although they were left without strong leaders, it’s clear that they could organize themselves to conquer their Arab rivals who were rising against them. They also expanded their territories together with the expansion of the Islamic religions (Goldschmidt and Davidson, 49). .
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After the demise of the Muhammad, the Islamic in the region established caliph government to act as the leadership of representative in the government. The first was the Uthman’s caliphate which was greatly troubled. Unfortunately, the Uthman reign was fraught of numerous assassinations which angered most of the Islamic houses. Generally, there were overthrows and take over following disagreement of the various Islamic houses. Ali reigned for a short while only lasting for not more than five years. Each of the leaders who took over the leaders faced different challenges both from the Islamic rivalry as well as tribal opponents. The continued discontentment of the various Islamic houses led to the further division of the Islamic family. As result of the rising Husayn fought relentless along with the Shiite group. The assassination of Husayn was not the end of the struggle, but such atonements made the defiance situation to grown even much more strong. This showed that Husayn message which had passed over to his followers had great effects and impacts on the people. Although decades passed, it was a decade a later that most of the strongest movements of his followers became recognized. This often rebellions were as result of lacks of adherence ideals which the houses believed would correct the mistakes which were made earlier during Muhammad’s regime.
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Chapter IV- this piece of work reveals the history of a period which is believed to have been the critical in governance of the Islamic Arabs in the middle east. It expatiates the reign of leaders who are believed to have been ruled during fierce periods. Generally, the Arabs had established two major kingdoms from 685 to 945. This is period which was dominated by two high caliphates. The Abbasid and the Umayyad had relatively gained prominence in their ruling; however, the frequencies of the upheaval had almost doubled. Though the Umayyad regains their power giving much hope to the Islamic this does not last long before the conquest is shattered demeaning the Abd al-Malik triumph. The downfall of Umayyad is taken over by the Abbasid caliphate that has great influences from the Shiite house, which also faces another big blow from the revolts of the Arabs. The anti-Abbasid upheavals set them off course and then paving the way for the Persian power (Goldschmidt and Davidson, 59).
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