Process Description of Photosynthesis


Photosynthesis refers to a complex process whereby sunlight is used in making glucose, which is a sugar that is important for the survival of a plant. Therefore, photosynthesis is a food making process through which all plants and some other consumers make use of solar energy (photon energy) to produce food including glucose. During the photosynthesis process, oxygen is manufactured from water and carbon dioxide through a complex process. The oxygen formed during this process is then utilized by animals in the process of respiration. The process of photosynthesis has many complex steps which are light dependent (Sharkey et al., 2012).

Stages and Special Conditions Needed

During the first process of photosynthesis, chlorophyll, which is normally found in a plant’s cell wall, traps photon energy. In the second stage, water (H2O) is split through light energy. In the final stage, oxygen is formed and it eventually exits through the stomata, which are usually controlled by the guard cells.  The whole photosynthesis process can be summed up through an equation: 6CO2+6H2O + Light Energy=C6H12O6 + 6O2. This equation implies that carbon dioxide emanating from water and air combine in sunlight’s presence to form sugars; in the end, oxygen is released as a by-product.  

Summary of the Major Steps of Photosynthesis

The photosynthesis process is divided into major parts, namely the light dependent and dark or light independent reactions. The capturing of solar energy to produce the adenosine triphosphate molecule leads to the occurrence of a light dependent reaction. On the other hand, a dark reaction occurs when the adenosine triphosphate is used to manufacture glucose during the Calvin cycle. Together with other carotenoids, chlorophyll forms the antenna complexes that transfer light energy from various photochemical centers.


During the first stage of photosynthesis, chlorophyll traps sunlight into the leaves; in the second stage, sunlight provides a plant with energy to start the process of food production. During the third step, the roots suck the available nutrients up to the leaves and, eventually, the leaves mix water, the nutrients and carbon dioxide to manufacture glucose. Finally, the wastes arising from photosynthesis (Oxygen) are emitted.   



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