The femur is a long bone located in the thigh. At its upper end there is the head of femur which forms an important ball and socket joint with the hip which aids in leg movement. The head of femur is attached to the rest of the bone through the neck of femur. Its long tubular region is called the shaft. At the lower end of the femur, it forms a joint with the tibia.

The tibia also called the shinbone is the stronger bone of the bones of the lower leg. It also falls in the category of the long bones. It has an upper extremity which connects it to the knee joint and a lower extremity which forms a joint with the ankle bones.

The fibula is the outer and smaller bone of the lower leg and the thinnest of the long bones. Its upper end does not have contact with the knee joint but the lower end descends to be a part of the ankle joint.

The humerus is the bone of the upper arm. It is also a long bone and forms a ball and socket joint with the shoulder. However, unlike the femur, the humerus has a smaller head which forms a shallower joint with great amount of movement but compromised strength.

The radius is the forearm bone extending from the lateral side of elbow and curving slightly to the side of the wrist with the thumb. It is located lateral to the ulna and has a prism shape. It articulates with the capitulum of the humerus on the upper extremity.

The ulna is also a prism shaped long bone located medially on the forearm. It articulates with the trochlea of the humerus forming the hinge joint of the elbow. It has the olecranon process that connects it to the humerus at the olecranon fossa preventing hyperextension of the arm.

The patella is a sesamoid bone also called the knee cap. It is circular triangular and articulates with the femur. It develops in and is attached to the quadriceps muscle tendon. It functions to protect the knee joint.

The scapula is the bone of the shoulder girdle connecting the humerus with the clavicle. Ii articulates with the clavicle trough the acromion process and forms the shoulder joint with its glenoid cavity that articulates with the humerus.

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The metacarpals are the bones that form the knuckles of the hand. The proximal end is called the base and the distal end the head. The distal ends form joints with the phalanges.

The carpals are joints of the wrists distal to the radius and ulna that connect to the metacarpals. They are eight in number and form four joints with metacarpals.

The tarsal bones are seven bones that make up the ankle of the foot. The various bones play different roles and are arranged accordingly.

Metatarsals are five long cylindrical bones that make up the central bones of the foot. They form joints with the toe bones or the knuckles of the toes.

The ribs are thin curved and flat bones that form a cage called the rib cage in order to protect visceral organs. They are 12 pairs with the first seven pairs being called true ribs, the following three pairs false ribs and the last two pairs floating ribs.

The clavicle also called the collar bone is a short bone of the shoulder girdle. It is curved doubly connecting the arm to the body and keeping the scapula in position for the arm to hang and execute its movements freely.

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The sternum is flat bone that is dagger shaped and the point of attachment for the ribs. It is located medially in the chest and has tree parts namely the manubrim, the body and the xiphoid process.

The illium is the largest bone of the pelvis located in the upper region of the pelvis. Its body forms the acetabulum which forms a joint with the femur. Distally, it is continuous with the ischium and the pubis.

The ischium is the bone of the lower dorsal part of the hip bone. It has a body, a superior ramus and an inferior ramus.

The sacrum is a triangular bone located at the upper back of the pelvic cavity and the base of the spine. It links with the lumbar vertebrae proximally and the coccyx distally.

The phalanges are bones of the fingers and toes and they are fourteen in number in each hand and in each foot.

The vertebral discs are bones that protect the spine. They are also called spinal discs and are twenty three in total in the spinal column. They act as shock absorbers.

Simple fracture is one in which a bone breaks in to two parts.

Comminuted is a fracture in which the bone breaks in to several fragments.

Penile fracture is one which occurs when the penis tissue raptures. Surgery is the only method of treatment of penile fracture.

Complete is a fracture which the bone completely breaks in to two or more parts.

Impacted fracture is one in which one fragment of the bone is embedded into another fragment of a bone.

Compound or open fracture is one in which the broken bone protrudes through the skin.

In incomplete fracture, the bone cracks but does not snap or break in to two or several parts.

Stress fracture is one that is usually invisible even with the aid of X-ray until after six weeks.

All bone fractures are usually treated with the same methodology. However, there are treatment variations depending on the extent of the fracture. Immobilization using cast and splint is one of the major ways of realigning the fractured bone.

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Smooth muscles are those found on the hollow parts of the body. These muscles are arranged in layers which have fibres running in different directions. Smooth muscles are involuntary and we cannot control their movement or function.

Cardiac muscles are striped and they cannot be controlled. They contract automatically to squeeze the wall of the heart thereby pumping blood. Their major work is not altered until one dies.

Skeletal muscles usually support the skeleton. They make about fifty percent of all muscles in the body. There are more than six hundred skeletal muscles which are known. Unlike other types of muscles, these muscles are voluntary, they can be controlled consciously.



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