Cell biology is a branch of biology that studies all aspects of the cell. These aspects include cell division, cell structure, cell death and cell respiration. The cell is the basic unit of life, It is the smallest thing alive. Cells combine to form molecules. Each cell is sell sufficient with different structures all with their own functions.There are two types of cells the eukaryotic Cells and Prokaryotic Cells. The eukaryotic cells are cells that have a true nucleus. The nucleus has the DNA which is important in genetics. The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is contained within a membrane and separated from the other structures of the cell. In the prokaryotic cells, the DNA is not separated from the other cellbut the nucleus is coiled in a region called the nucleiod. Eukaryotes are the animal cells, plant cells, fungi cells, and the prostists cells. The prokaryotes include the bacteria. The eukaryotes are 10 times bigger than the prokaryotes.The Eukaryotes reproduce and grow through mitosis. They also reproduce sexually in organism, the reproductive cells are produced through Meiosis which is a type of cell division. Prokaryotes reproduce through binary fusion.
Energy for the cells that is needed for their growth and maintains their functions is gotten through cellular respiration. In the eukaryotes cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria and in the prokaryotes it takes place in the cytoplasm or within the cell membrane.
Both the eukaryotes and the prokaryotes have well elaborated cell structure each part with a role to play in the working of the cell. Some of the cell structures include the mitochondria which is used in the cell respiration, ribosome are used for the synthesis of proteins, Golgi bodies, cell membrane used for movement of substances in and out of the cell and other structures of the cell. Eukaryotes have more cell structure which are more complex while the prokaryotes have simple cell structure and some cell structures found in the eukaryotes are missing in the prokaryotes e.g. centrioles, lysosome, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria among others.There are other important cellular processes e.g. Active transport and passive transport which are the selected movement of substances in and out of the cell. There is also cell adhesion which is the holding together of different cells to form a molecule. There is also the cell movement, such cells have cilia and flagella that help the cell to move. There are also other cellular processes such as the DNA repair and cell death for new cells to be formed. Cellular respiration is also an important process by which energy stored in food is utilized by the cells this involves glycolsis, active transport and citric acid cycle.
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