This is the main complication associated with heparin drug therapy. An excessively protracted coagulation time or trivial bleeding in the course of therapy may habitually be checked by extracting the drug. It ought to be acknowledged that urinary or gastrointestinal bleeding in the course of anticoagulant psychoanalysis may point out the existence of an original occult lesion. Any site may be bleeding but the detection of a particular hemorrhagic impediment may be challenging.

Adrenal hemorrhage, with subsequent acute adrenal inadequacy, is reported to have occurred during anticoagulant psychotherapy. As a result, such therapy ought to be withdrawn among patients who demonstrate symptoms and signs of acute adrenal hemorrhage and inadequacy. Introduction of remedial therapy is not supposed to be determined by laboratory validation of the diagnosis. This is because any delays done in a critical situation may lead to fatal consequences (Perkash, 1980). Hemorrhage of the Corpus Luteum has also been diagnosed in several women in their reproductive age. This was in the course of obtaining either long- or short-term anticoagulant psychotherapy. If not detected in time, this complication may lead to fatality.


Comprehensive hypersensitivity responses have been recounted with fever, chills and urticaria as the utmost typical manifestations. Rhinitis, nausea, asthma, lacrimation, vomiting and headache as well as anaphylactic reactions, including shock, hardly occur. Burning and itching may chiefly occur on the plantar spot of the feet.

Patients undergoing heparin treatment have been reported to experience thrombocytopenia. The number of such occurrences usually comprises approximately 30%. Though, it may not bring significant clinical consequences, it may be supplemented with severe thromboembolic difficulties like skin necrosis and gangrene of the limbs. This may result to pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, and probably death. Specific occurrences of ischemic, painful, and cyanosed appendages have previously been accredited to sensitive vasospastic responses (Miyashita, Hayashi and Kuro, 2000). Whether these symptoms are analogous to the thrombocytopenia related complications remains to be unraveled.

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Safety Measures

Certain measures ought to be taken in the course of administering this drug. One needs to acknowledge the impacts of this drug. These include:

Augmented Hazard among Elder Women

Bleeding incidences have been reported among women aged over sixty. The commended laboratory tests include: hematocrits, intermittent platelet counts, and examinations for occult blood in feaces. This all should be done through the therapy course.

Resistance to Heparin

Augmented heparin resistance is commonly experienced in infections with coagulating inclinations, fever, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, cancer, thrombophlebitis, and among postsurgical patients (Perkash, 1980).

Mutagenesis, Carcinogenesis and Fertility Impairment

There exist no long-term researches on animals that have been carried out to assess carcinogenic probability of heparin. In addition, there were performed no reproduction researches on animals with regard to fertility impairment or mutagenesis.

Nursing Mothers

With regard to its huge molecular weight, human milk is not likely to excrete heparin. Furthermore, any traces of heparin in maternal milk would not orally be taken in by a nurturing infant. On the other hand, a not nurturing infant may consume it orally (Rosenberg, 1977). A lot of precautions ought to be taken during the intravenous administration of heparin to a nursing mother.

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There are no appropriate and well-systematized studies on the utilization of heparin by pediatric patients. Pediatric medication approvals are centered on medical experience. As a result, all Heparin Sodium Injection bottles ought to be checked in order to approve selection of the precise strength preceding the administration of the drug. In case of any errors with regard to this, it may result in fatal consequences.

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