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In studying Bio-genetics, we have to evaluate three major components of Mendelian or transmission genetics, molecular biology as well as the population genetics. For instance, Mendelian biology deals with relevant information that characterizes the DNA structure and its replication, gene cloning, genomics and ethics that are involved in genetics. On the other hand, population genetics entails the arguments that were contained in the hardy-Weinberg theory.
It is through Mendel’s law that we appreciate the existence of the genetics of inheritance. Despite farmer putting in a lot of effort towards the breeding of plants and animals, there was a factor with regard to inheritance that limited their potential. This was however changes with the advent of effective laboratory breeding experiments (O’Neil). The orientation that Mendel found out on in experimenting the plants was not only applicable to plants but to human beings as well. In summing up his conclusions, Mendel came up with two principles which he noted as the principle of segregation and the principle of independent assortment.
In his arguments on the principle of segregation, Mendel found out that for any given trait, and then the pair of alleles for any given parent is likely to separate. As a result of this separation, there is only one allele that will pass from each of the parents unto the offspring. However, it is only a matter of chance for a particular parent’s pair of alleles to be inherited. The process of sex cell formation is what gives birth to the segregation of alleles.
Consequently, Mendel concludes that different types of alleles are usually passed on to the offspring independent of each other in his arguments on the principle of independent assortment. The resulting variant is that neither the traits present in both parent can be obtained in the process. The idea of why we do not have six fingers in any of our hands is an indication that the principle of independent assortment holds some ground. In modern times, we can illustrate the concept of fingers as a result of genes associated with independently assorted traits is usually located on different chromosomes. It is worth mentioning that humanity was presented with a better way of understanding genetics with the beginning of Mendel two principles (Plaisted). There have been arguments, however, about the validity of Mendel principles since it had claimed to disapprove the orientation of Lamarck’s theory of the inheritance.
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The two principles stated by Mendel laws is with regard to the cell nucleus. According to Mendel’s laws, a mutation of one particular gene has the ability of causing a disease that has inherited characteristics. Some of this disease at times includes cystic fibrosis, xeroderma pigmentosa and sickle cell anemia.
It always entails the study of the frequency as well as interaction of the alleles and genes in the population. It is only possible to determine the characteristics of organism through their genetic material also known as the DNA as well as the changes through which they undergo. This is what is known as the random mutations. The changes, can affect the formation of organism and in the process, an evolution is witnessed. In the analysis of a given population, statistics indicate that about 90 percent of the DNA is usually non-functional and so there will be no effect generated by mutations. It is only 10 percent of the remaining DNA that tends to be functional (Dorak). It is worth mentioning that it is the 10 percent that remains functional which has a bearing on the characteristics of an organism.
In studying the ten percent, one realizes that they are divided into three elements, signifying that they at times become harmful or useful. Still, others might not play a major role and will remain neutral. It further states that less the neutrality of the active DNA is usually less as compared to both the beneficial and harmful components (Dorak). The large proportion of mutations signifies that most of them always remain harmful.
According to David Plaisted, the large percentage of harmful mutations in the resulting ten percent that remains functional indicates that there are limited chances of survival of the organism. This is the reason why they are greatly discouraged within a given population and which forces their removal from the human population. On the other hand, the mutations that do not pose a threat to the population can be preserved or eliminated by chance. The accumulation always results to their adaptation to the environment. With regards to neutral mutations, they do not always make it to for they are usually eliminated.
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On the other hand, if they make it without being eliminated, they tend to spread to the entire population. This is what is usually referred to as the fix in a population and which determines the rate of evolution. The population is likely to degenerate due to the offspring having an average of one harmful mutation each. David concludes that the rate of evolutions can be analyzed through the possibility that different mutations are passed on to offspring (Dorak). The mutation is likely to spread within a given population as a result of an individual having the mutation influences two of its offspring. It is also possible to eliminate the mutation if one or two of the offspring do not have it. On the other hand, there have been assumptions by several authors that population size is usually infinite and when the assumptions are valid, then the population in successive generations will not be changed.
This is the study of biology at a molecular level. It is therefore important to understand the interactions made between different systems of the cell and this pertains with the relationship envisioned with the DNA, RNA as well as the protein biosynthesis. In order to come with effective results in molecular Biology, scientist tends to associate it with other biological sciences. One therefore get to know what happens in the event of replication, translation as well as transcription. In Conclusion, the paper has looked into Mendelian biology deals with relevant information that characterizes the DNA structure and its replication, gene cloning, genomics and ethics that are involved in genetics. On the other hand, population genetics entails the arguments that were contained in the hardy-Weinberg theory (News Medical). The changes, can affect the formation of organism and in the process, an evolution is witnessed. In the analysis of a given population, statistics indicate that about 90 percent of the DNA is usually non-functional and so there will be no effect generated by mutations. There are different ways of understanding how mutations take place within a given population. Mendel arguments have come under critics from those who argue that he was not inclusive when he was researching his laws.
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