Various Soil Types

Living things that live in the soil are responsible for soil composition and quality in a certain area. Some soils are very dark because they have a high manure content and very rich in nutrients while others are light and lack any nutrients. The soil composition is responsible for plant growth, erosion and water availability in the soil; therefore, the living things in the soil make the most essential part of soil matter.

3rd lab (Paxton series)

They compose of many mechanically derived materials from different rocks and surfaces that are eroded during glaciations. (Englen 1914 ) illustrates how soils are subject to solvent denudation since their deposition by glaciers geologically take a very short time. He further states that some of the materials are as a result of chemical weathering and therefore from part of insoluble particles that are found in the soil content. These soils have a mixture of contents that form glacier soils the soil is glaciated due to melting ice that erodes the rocks forming the soil that is found beneath the glaciers.

The type of trees in the region are a mixture of both deciduous and carnivorous that shed their leaves during the dry season.

The top horizon of the soil has leaf litter that fall from the trees that are found in the area; deciduous trees leaves and the pine tree needles are the main leaves found on the ground. When the litter is collected from the ground and thoroughly cleaned up, rocks form the top soil. When the ice melts it carries down the rocks with it and deposits them on the floor of the glacier thus they cover the surface. Beneath the rocks there is very good mature soil that has been there for over 10,000 years; this soil can only be exposed by removing the rocks that cover it. In Horizon A and Horizon O that is beneath the top Horizon, there is a slightly different soil color because of presence of decomposed matter from the plant cover and other soil nutrients. Horizon B has Enchiridia worms that are also known as pot worms and garden snails.

There are big roots penetrating through the soil whose purpose is to hold the soil together as well as provide nitrogen to the soil. The roots are mostly of the variety of deciduous and carnivorous trees that are found in the area and are know to have large roots.

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The soil gets darker as you dig deeper because of decomposition of the organic matter found in the soil; the matter adds nutrients to the soil making it more fertile and increases its water retention capacity.

Paxton series (Inseptisol)

These soils are found in Buck Hill in the woods, the kind of vegetation found is oats and maple. Horizon A soil is clay like, smooth, and dark brown in color with no rocks, there are small millipedes found in the soil. The Horizon A soil is about 5 years old while Horizon B soil is muncel and is also 5 years old with a sequence of Latina soils going down.

The dark clay soil is as a result of organic matter that has decomposed in the soil to add nutrients and increase its water retention capacity.

The berries that fall on the ground are large with back or red color to make it easy for the birds to see and eat the berries, this is a good survival tactic for the birds.

When one digs deeper, the soil is very dark to almost black, this is because of more organic matter that is deep in the soil and is responsible for the black soil color. The soil near the water is wet gritty sandy soil that qualifies to be muck and there are lily pads on the water and the leaf cover is maple that is from the most colorful deciduous trees.

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(Brocket 2012) emphasizes that through the microorganisms found in the soil play a vital role that determine nutrient availability in the soil, we are therefore, able to understand how structure and function of the soil microorganisms influence the soil formation process.

Pout water pond.

This is a water basin that is as a result of ice retreating, this area shows glaciations features in a low area. Everything drains to this area but there is no way out for over the last 12,000 years. There is very low nutrition in the water because little nutrients dissolve and therefore, a few plant species can survive in this area.

Over the other side, there is a quaking bulge such that if you jump it wiggles; one can fall inside it up to the waist. Most of the area is muddy making it low in nutrients, few species of vegetation tolerate this acid condition of the soil, therefore, only the carnivorous plants and beaver lodge that can transform to human and beaver species live here. The latin name for beaver is castul concidancis from Canada.

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There is a growing urge to control the flow of water to raise the water level in the pond. There is a mixture of pine trees that are tolerant to acidity in the soils as well as gymnosperms and angiosperms, the decomposing plant material are carried down all the way to the water.

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