# The Laws of Thermodynamics essay

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The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can be converted from one form to another through a change in phases but cannot be created or destroyed. This law is thus based on the basic principle governed by the law of conservation of energy. This can be explained through a validation process which dictates that for a system that possesses energy there is a likelihood it will lose energy leading to a disparity between their initial and final states. The disparity is what is referred to as the change in internal energy. The internal energy of a system consists of two components which are kinetic and potential energy. These components cater for the behavior of molecules whereby kinetic energy constitutes movement of electrons within molecules whereas potential energy is determined by attractive forces existing between electrons and the nuclei, repulsive forces between electrons and the nuclei and between electrons. Therefore, the first law tells us of the possibility of converting some existing energy in more usable form or even larger quantities (Peter, 2006).The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of the universe increases in a process that is spontaneous in nature and remains in its unchanged state through an equilibrium process. This law shows the mutual connection that exists between spontaneity of reaction and entropy. Through the law we understand that the universe is made up of the system and the surroundings which interact with it spontaneously. Therefore, the entropy change in the universe for any process translates to the totality if the entropy changes in the system and the surroundings (Peter, 2006). For a process that is at equilibrium the entropy change in the universe will be zero meaning that the entropy change in the surrounding is equal is equal to that in the system but constitute an opposite sign that cancels the effect. In normal circumstances, the entropy change in the universe is greater than zero. If less than zero it means that the process is not spontaneous in the stated direction but rather in the opposite direction. This is an indication that energy is lost or not channeled for its right course leading top wastage.
Explanation on Why High-Quality Energy cannot be Recycled

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The second law of thermodynamics is used to describe this phenomenon to show that high-quality fuel is non-recycled due to a lot of wastage involved in the process. This means that energy as we know it does not improve in efficiency the more it is being used but rather keeps on diminishing. The high-quality fuel does not become recycled for the simple reason that it constitutes a system that resumes equilibrium conditions. This leads to the deduction that energy used cannot be completely converted to the targeted work hence the negative entropy evinced sometimes. The more a system is inefficient the more it experiences an increase in its internal energy which increases the haphazard motion of its atoms (Peter, 2006).When the barrel of oil is converted to some form of work and maybe some wasted as heat, it is the heat that perpetually results from the work that the oil is doing. Though it is possible to have all the oil converted to heat, there is no way the heat can be recycled to produce the oil because of the change of phases that are involved in attaining a state of equilibrium. This means that as the fuel is converted through the system, it increases the heat at the surrounding leading to an increased motion of molecules. This results to an increase of the number of microstates which results into entropy increase. The oil cannot be recycled because the increase in the microstates during its combustion takes up the heat that is produced making the system consist of molecules at random motion in a balanced state. In conclusion, we come to the realization that as the entropy of a system increases so does the molecules continue to remain in that state until the reverse occurs in form of heat absorption which is not the case for oil combustion (Peter, 2006).