Embryonic Stem Cells essay

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Stem cells are present in all multicellular living organisms. One major characteristic of stem cells is their ability to renew themselves through cell differentiation and mitotic cell division (Kiessissling & Anderson 141). The result of this renewal is a number of diverse specialized cells. Examples of stem cells include the Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCS); these cells are often applied in bone marrow transplants which are applied in the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia and other blood defects that are hereditary. The stem cells have the ability to form into many different cells in the body of an organism during the early stages of development of an organism. This ability of forming a number of cells provides the organism with repair sort of system that makes it possible for the organism to replenish itself as long as the organism is still alive (Carlson 18).The division of a cell gives it the ability to either remains as a stem cell or becomes a totally different cell that is specialized to carry out distinct functions (Sarkar 35). Some of the cells that have resulted from cell division and thus performing distinct functions include the brain cell, RBCs and the muscle cell. Generally, the stem cells identified by two specific characters, the self renewal trait and the potency character which implies to the ability of dividing to specific cells that build up to form special body tissues.Stem cells can easily be distinguished from the other cells by use of two specific traits. One the stem cells are unspecialized, this makes it possible for the cells to renew themselves through cell division. Some of the cell divisions may occur after a very long period. Secondly, under special experimental or physiologic conditions, the cells can easily be induced in to the formation of either tissues or organs which are rendered with the performance of very specific distinct duties. Stem cells are known to often divide to either replenish or repair tissues that are damaged or worn-out. Commonly, such instances are very common in the bone marrow and the gut. It should also be noted that the division of the stem cells occurs in very special cases and conditions.Stem cells properties that differentiate it with other types of cells Stem cells have unique properties that differentiate them to other types of body cells. The unique properties of stem are that they are capable of dividing or replicating themselves, they are not specialized and that they can grow to stem cells. One of the properties of stem cells where the embryonic stem cell is found is that the cell has the capability to of splitting themselves and re-energizing themselves for long durations of time. The other types of cell such as blood cells and muscle cell do not replicate themselves.A few stem cell in can replicate themselves in the laboratory situation to give millions of cells. The replicating of the embryonic stem cell has led to the explosion of research by scientist in order for them to understand the reason behind the properties of   embryonic stem cell that differentiate it with other types of cell. What the scientists are trying to uncover is that why the embryonic stem cell is able to sty for long period of time for instance one year and more in the laboratory while other types of cell like blood cells cannot be able to survive.The scientists are also seeking to identify why the stem cells are able to renew themselves and what favors their renewal in the bodies of their hosts. The proliferation of the cell has led to the cases of cancers and that is the reason why some civil society are against the test tube babies since they believe that the replication of cells can lead to disorders including the cases of cancers. Another factor that differentiates stem cell with other type of cells is that they are unspecialized that means that the cells do not carry out specific tasks like the ones carried out by the heart-muscles-cell which is to pump blood or the work that is executed by the red blood cell which is to carry oxygen in the body.Adult cell also known as Somatic-stem-cell refers to the cells that are undifferentiated cells that are found among the differentiated cells. The major roles of the adult cell is to provide repair for the broken tissues around the area they are found. In the recent time the scientist has found that there are many adult cells than they thought possible and thus have led to the question that whether the adult cells can be used in transplant. In matter of fact bone marrow; the blood forming cells have been used in transplant for over 40 years.
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Adult stem cells are found in various organs and body tissues for instance in the bone marrow, teeth, skin, the peripheral blood and in other body organs. It is believed that the adult stem cell reside in "stem cell niche" of each tissue in order to replenish the broken tissue that may have been caused by disease or injury. The scientist believe that there are no many adult cell in each tissue and that it is difficult for the body to generate another sets of the adult cells once the cell are destroyed. It is the emerging trend in the scientific world to find ways of artificially generating adult cells in order to find cure for the diseases that may have led to the destruction of tissues.When the embryonic stem cells are kept under proper conditions, they can stay for long period of time without being differentiated (Cregan, 127). When the appropriate conditions are not maintained, the embryonic stem cells clump together and thus they start to go under differentiation process to create what is called embryoid bodies.When the embryonic stem cells are differentiated they form specialized cells such as nerve cells, muscles cells and red blood cells and other cells in the body that they carry out a specialized task in the body. In order to generate of produce a give specialized blood cells for instance blood cells, muscles cells and nerve cells, the scientists should control the process of differentiation in which the embryonic stem cells undergo in order to form the specialized cells. The scientists are able to control the process in which the embryonic stem cells undergo differentiation in order to form a differentiate cells by changing the composition of the solution in the culture by inserting a particular genes to the medium of the culture or changing  the surface in which the culture medium is stored in the laboratory.Another important thing to shed light on in the study of embryonic stem cells is the pluripotent stem cells. Pluripotent stem cells refer to the type of the stem cells that have been modified into embryonic stem cells. The adult cells can be modified into the embryonic stem cells by altering the properties of the adult cells to fit the properties of embryonic stem cells through generic modification.Adult Stem Cells The stem cells are found to occupy specific regions of the cell that are referred to as the stem cell niche. Some of the stem cells are termed to as pericytes. These are the cells that consist of outermost coverings that consist of minuet blood vessels. Despite stem cells dividing in most instances, they may undergo a quiescent state, this is the period of long non divisions till they are triggered by things like the need for more cells in order to maintain the equilibrium of the cells or the when a tissue is damaged or injured. Adult stem cells are present in a number of organs and tissues. This include the brain, blood vessels, skin, liver, gut and the bone marrow just to mention but a few.Klimanskaya & lanza (128) states that it has been indicated, the stem cells are known to give rise to specific various cells which later acquire special specific functions through cell differentiation.  The stem cells are commonly found in the fetus, adult tissues and embryos. An adult stem cell is a cell that is undifferentiated and located among the cells that are fully differentiated located either in the organs or tissues. The fully differentiate cells have the ability to differentiate themselves to form new and the major cells in the tissue or organ. The stem cells are owed with some specific responsibilities that they play in an organism is to repair and maintain the tissues in which they are located.

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In some instances, the term somatic stem cells have been used to represent the stem cells. In this case, the term somatic implies to the body cells and not the germ cells, eggs or sperms. Research has not comer up with the clear origin of the adult stem cells. This is unlike the embryonic cells that are identified and defined depending on their point of origin. Recent research has come up with findings that indicate more regions from which adult stem cells originate compared to initial research. Through these findings, a lot of excitement has been generated in regard to whether it could be possible to use these cells for medical transplants for patients.Some of the places that the stem cells have been found to exist include the heart and the brain. Further research has indicated that the possibility of controlling the stem cells through laboratory tests can lead to the formation of transplantation based therapy. Stem cells can be identified through a number of methods. Some of the techniques employed including the labeling of the tissue and determining the number of cells that they are able to generate (Masters et al 239) , secondly, the transplantation of the cells to other animals and identifying whether these cells can repopulate is another technique to use in identifying the type of cells used in these processes.Significance of Stem Cells Turksen (259) asserts that the significance of stem cells to living organisms is undisputable. Embryonic cells aged three to five days that are referred to as blastocyst are responsible fore the formation of the organism's whole body. This includes all the numerous cells that are specialized to carry out specific duties such as the heart, the liver, skin and the sperms including the eggs.In mature adult cells such as the bone marrow, the brain and the muscles, the adult cells that are discrete in populations are responsible for the generation of cells that replace worn-out cells that ay occur as a result of diseases, injury or the normal wear and tear processes.The adult stem cells have unique regenerative abilities, through this; the cells are in better positions of offering defense mechanisms for the treatment of diseases such as heart complication and diabetes. Despite this, a lot of task is left for the clinicians in coming up with comprehensive ways of applying cell based therapies in the treatment of diseases (Kiessissling & Anderson 13).  At the same time continuous research on stem cells has led to the advancement of knowledge regarding to the development of an organism from one cell and the ways in which cells are able to replace and replenish worn-out cells in organisms. Lastly the constant study of the stem cells in the laboratory has led to scientists using them in screening modern drugs and developing new improved methods to be used in studying the causes in birth defects (Cohen, 54).Similarities and Differences between Adult and Embryonic Stem CellsThere is a great similarity between the adult stem cell and the human embryonic cells. They both do have advantages and disadvantages which will favor or disfavor the roes they play in the living organisms. A major distinction that exists between these cells is in terms of the cells that they may result into after cell division and in relation to their numbers. In one instance the embryonic cells have the ability of becoming and forming all the body cells due to their pluripotent nature (Turksen 43). On the other hand the stem cells are limited in regard to differentiation to generate new cells from their tissue origins.Dr. Sillivan (213) suggests that there is an easy relative nature growth of the embryonic cells. the adult stem cells are very rare to be found in the mature tissues, this makes it very cumbersome to separate the cells from the tissue that are mature, the methods employed also lead to the expansion of numbers through the cell culture. This distinction is very crucial distinction because there is need for cell replacement therapies.There is concrete believe that tissues that are derived from adult stem cells and embryonic cells and it's like hood of rejection of transplantation (Sarkar 91). Although, there is no enough proof as to whether those transplantations t that involve adult stem cells will be rejected. Tissues and adult stem cells that have been derived from a number of cells can initiate rejections of one kind or the other (Chapman, 45).Pros & Cons of embryonic stem cells researchDuring the reign of President Bush the funding on the embryonic stem cells research was banned. The president Bush administration was siding with the conservative Christian community who believed that the scientists were interfering with how God intended life to be. The embryonic stem cells research was believed to the idea behind test tube babies. According to Christian, they believed that God is the author of life and that scientists should not interfere with the natural way of procreation.President Bush urged that the allowing of embryonic stem cells research would cross the moral boundaries; the president argued that allowing embryonic stem cells research to be carried out would lead to taking of innocent lives by the scientists in order for them to come up with the breakthroughs that would help future generations. In the 2001, President Bush in 2001 cut funding on embryonic stem cells research; he only allowed a research on about 60 stem cells that would be funded at Federal level. President Bush argued that by allowing through funding by central government embryonic stem cells research would lead to the deliberate destruction of human embryos that would lead to the destruction of human life (Nippert, 125).President Obama when he came into power, he reverted the issue of cutting funding on the embryonic stem cells research; Obama argued that the cutting of funding on embryonic stem cells would deny the Americans the opportunities of having the cure of the diseases that affect them and that can be cured. President Obama, a liberal argues that the funding of embryonic stem cells research would ensure that people who are suffering have a permanent cure. The benefits that would be accrued from the embryonic stem cells research would have more benefit than the disadvantages that are postulated by the critics.According to Obama, the problems that affect American population would be something of the past for instance those who are suffering from the spinal injuries would have another new lease of life and would stop using the wheelchairs for their movement, embryonic stem cells research would also ensure that the insulin in the body is generated and thus save the Americans generation life time medical assistance to minimize the severity of the diabetes and lastly the embryonic stem cells research would ensure that many fatal diseases affecting livelihood of many Americans such as  cancer, heart complications and other diseases that makes the United States government to use a lot of resources in offering medical assistance is controlled. The above arguments made by president Obama caused the members of the public and the senate to buy his ideas and thus ensure the funding on embryonic stem cells research is returned. According to the Obama administration, for the improvement of medical care and controlling of the diseases, the government must ensure funding of embryonic stem cells research (Shostak, 54).In conclusion, the issue of funding embryonic stem cells research remains controversial with one group that include the conservative religious people opting for the government not to fund embryonic stem cells research. The religious people argue that when the scientists are given funds to carry out embryonic stem cells research would mean that people are given the authority to interfere with life.On the other hand, the group that comprises mainly of liberals argues that funding of embryonic stem cells research would help get the cure of many sicknesses that affect people in the society. Those for the funding of embryonic stem cells research argue that lack of funding would lead to brain drain in that many doctors would migrate to countries where their work are supported by the government. Thus it's a matter of self conviction whether the government should fund or not embryonic stem cells research since both sides have their valid reason to oppose or reject the funding of embryonic stem cells research by the government (Wertz, 25).

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