Teaching Reading in Second Language


When people are born, the language they are taught by their parents becomes their first language. This language appears to be extremely easy for them to be learned and spoken. However, occasionally it happens that further education requires the knowledge of a certain language to be used in reading and teaching. In this case second language learning becomes inevitable element of studying process especially for those who are not yet familiar with it. For those facing the requirement for the first time, it may appear strenuous or even laborious process. Thus, people speaking foreign languages other than English might have difficulties in learning it as a second language to gain knowledge in class. By this, efficient studying is possible under the condition that teachers and other scholars concentrate on the possible strategies that will make the process easy for those who learn English as a second language.


            In this source the issue of teaching reading as a second language is much discussed. The author starts with the definition of reading process. It can be defined as a conscious or unconscious process of decoding what the author is presumed to mean in his or her writings. Therefore, according to the author, reading is a process that presupposes the involvement of  learners’ thoughts with the aim to learn the language effectively. For this reason, the author of these articles presents various strategies and skills to be used by different scholars who take part in teaching English as a second language.

            According to this article four integral elements are extremely important for easy and efficient learning of English as a second language. The first one is anextensive reading. It means that second language learners should be encouraged to read more books in order to learn English efficiently. While performing the extensive reading, they should enjoy the whole process and ensure that reading is done for the required purposes. Secondly, they should develop comprehension skills. This is where second language learners are encouraged to think in English so that they are able to comprehend easily whatever is written and in the end to develop the skills which are necessary for the proper usage of English language. Thirdly, reading fluency is another element that is important for the efficient learning of English. It should be mentioned that it does not mean reading aloud since a person can read silently. In this case, the author means that people should adjust the proper level for easy understanding. Finally, vocabulary development is an important element. The more one reads, the more he or she improves the vocabulary. Minding the elements introduced, a learner is bound to be effective and fluent in English.

            The only problem is that the author does not introduce skills to be used by teachers and scholars in teaching second language. This is because telling students how to acquire the skills and how to use them is not enough. Moreover, the author does not explaine the learners how to use these skills in order to get interested in learning them. Therefore, there appears a need to establish skills to be used by teachers in teaching English as a second language to learners. .

            This article aims at helping indigenous students who learn and use English as a second language in the Australian education system. These students often have difficulties in learning and using English as a second language. For this reason, the authors of this article have researched and found strategies to be used in teaching and writing English as a second language in order to be easier learned and understoodThis article illustrates that learning English as a second language is a universal problem, not the problem of one state. Therefore, this article bears a variety of solutions that could be universally applied by scholars and learners for the efficient and easy learning of English.

            The authors have incorporated second language acquisition theories in accelerated literacy for the purposes of making it efficient. This is where nativists’, cognitive, social interactionists’ and social culture theories are incorporated to make English learning easy for second language learners. These theories are known to contain several flaws that make them inefficient. However, according to the authors, when the theories relate to accelerated literacy the flaws are removed and the whole process becomes extremely efficient and easy for the learners and scholars to be used. Additionally, the authors establish the skills to be used when teaching second language learners.

            Similar to the above article, the authors do not explaine the way how to apply these skills in teaching and learning English as a second language by the scholars. . According to this article, the theories of second language acquisition are to be implemented together with accelerated theories that allows the removal of those flaws that make English learning difficult for second language learners. As a result, people are able to use the theories mentioned above. However, implementing theories is not enough. The scholars and learners need further steps and skills to follow for the purpose of easy and effective teaching and learning of English as a second language.

            This article is extremely helpful for the teachers and scholars who are working with those students who have problems in learning second language. Authors of the article provide the list of strategies for teachers to be used while conducting classes for their students. Additionally, it presents the flaws of the programs used by teachers in the past which are believed to create a difficulty for easy process of learning English as a second language. In this case  the excellent programs that teachers are expected to use while teaching learners of second language are developed. Moreover, the authors use real life situations to come up with these programs.

            According to the authors, old teaching programs were not effective enough. It is mainly because students did not offer commendable results. The authors indicate that those programs which the teachers are introduced to for the purpose of teaching second language learners are extremely poor while producing no good result. However, according to the research conducted by the authors of the article the old program can be implemented in the way so that it is more effective for teachers. Additionally, this new program will produce promising results for the second language learners. Finally, the authors conclude that in order the Otherwise, their students will not learn effectively.

             The only problem with the ideas presented in the article is that they are highly controlled by emotions. For instance, if the program is to be implemented and the teachers are either not interested or ready to learn it, it will hinder the success of learners of English . In this case, the students will have problems in learning English as a second language rather than enjoy the effective and efficient process. Finally, it bases its success solely in hands of teachers leaving the learners outside. The main aim is to ensure the success  of the  learners of English as a second language. If they are not involved in the programs, how are they going to become effective? For this reason, the authors should have considered the presence of the second language learners.

            According to this article, it is stated that students are able to listen and understand easily whatever is being taught to them. They are able to comprehend the meaning of what is being read to them. However, left to read for themselves, the students may read fluently but not being able to understand the text. In this case, they find it difficult to comprehend what is written when they are alone. The authors present a list of methods, materials and evidence for the students to be used while reading. Therefore, this article may appear to be interesting for those second language learners who are interested in improving their understanding.

            According to the author, learners should be helped in reading fluently while not reading quickly. Currently, students are asking their teachers whether it is important to read quickly or not. The answer should be ’no’ since a student can have the art of reading quickly but may not understand anything in the text. Therefore, authors of the article come up with those practical methods that successfully improve the process of learning the second language by the learners. In this case, teachers are expected to provide learners with the reading materials that could be acted. This is where students will reenact what they have read in the voice of the author in order to show that they have understood. For this reason, not only will they be able to read fluently, but understand what is written in the text.

            The excellent thing about this article is that the authors provided second language learners with a list of practical methods to be used while learning. These methods have proved to be extremely efficient for the learners. However, not all learners may approve of this strategy. This is because not all of them are interested in reenacting what they have learned. For this reason, the author should establish alternative methods that will be suitable for the learners of various types. This will influence the all learners’ level of  efficacy  , not of the part of them . Therefore, the authors of this article will improve the overall learning of students.

            This is a collection of different articles edited and put in one complete article by the author in order to demonstrate the whole process of learning English as a second language. The first chapter of this article helps to show the different errors made by learners. Additionally, the chapter shows how these errors could be implemented by scholars for the purposes of learning. The second chapter of this article shows the development of the theories that are being used by scholars to educate second language learners. The other chapters of the article introduce different methodologies. Additionally, these last chapters indicate those skills that are necessary for both learners and scholars for their efficient learning and teaching of English as a second language.

            The article shows that the root cause of the problem is to be established first. In this case, the article begins with the disposition of the most typical errors  s made by students. It is said to be the root cause of poor learning of English as a second language by learners. Secondly, the article shows the programs that are currently in use. The authors shed light on the moments where the programs have tribulations causing the errors discussed in chapter one. The preceding chapters show the new programs after implementation. Moreover, these chapters show how they can be applied by both teachers and students. Therefore, this article may be found  informative   and further used in the research.

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            However, the article does not provide any statistics to prove the efficiency of the new programs  in comparison to the old  ones. The article has gone a notch higher by establishing the root cause of every problem. Additionally, this is the cause for implementing the different programs aimed  to improve learning among second language learners. Secondly, it has followed through to create new programs that could be equally applied by both sides of educational process. On the other hand, the author of the article does not provide any evidence to show the results of the newly implemented programs . Therefore, it would be better if the author has an opportunity to put his theories into practice in order to prove the efficiency of any of them.

            In this article, the author is trying to create suitable programs that are practical for the learners of English as a second language. First, the author establishes materials that suites for usage. These materials are easy for understanding, finding and comprehension by the most indigenous people. Secondly, the author indicates in the program an easy process of learning that is to be followed through in order to influence the efficacy of learning. Finally, the author encourages teachers or scholars to guide students on the preliminary stages, while letting them  be independent later on. In this case, students will be encouraged  to talk in front of a crowd and at the same time will learn more effectively. For this reason, this article is  to be used in  the research.

            According to the author, simple steps are to be followed in order to help teachers educate their students and make learners understand the necessary skills that are expected from them in the process of learning. In this case, the author starts introducing both teachers and learners to the activities they are expected to participate in before reading the text. After this, the author includes the steps  and activities for both students and teachers to be followed while reading. Finally, the author has described steps and activities to be followed by students and teachers after reading the text. This program reveals easy steps for both students and scholars to use and follow, all of which contribute to effectiveness and efficiency of students’ learning.           However, the author  does not provide any prove of the program’s effectiveness. Many programs that are developed by scholars after their intensive research of the matter fail to work  simply because of the absence of the testing. Additionally, the author does not indicate the groups that are expected to use this program. For instance, it would be better if the author states that the program is useful for the high school students or college students. This is because various groups of people require different programs. Therefore, this article is not that excellent due to the lack of evidence to show its applicability.

            In this article, the authors describe the process of learning English as a second language by the learners of various age groups. In this case, children who are leaning English as a second language are different from adults who are learning English as a second language learner. Additionally, the authors explain the basic principles used with the purpose to teache both groups, so that they  are able to learn English more effectively. The authors continue explaining the ways in which two groups could be taught easily using different strategies. At the end of this research, the authors appear to be able to explain the possibilities for the students to benefit from this study if they are to follow the findings.

            The first thing the two authors establish is that different groups require different strategies. Moreover, these groups need various techniques of learning English as a second language depending onthe purposes. Secondly, the authors establish different strategies for the different age groups. For instance, teaching a child how to read in English one will definitely find it extremely different from the process of teaching an adult to read in English. Finally, the authors use social culture as one of the factors that is important for the effective second language learning. Almost all the languages in the world depend on the culture they originate from. For this reason, the second language learners should be interest in learning the history and culture of English, so that they are able to understand it effectively and become fluent in it.

            Similar to the other articles, the authors does not present any prove to show that the two groups benefit from these strategies. However, there are instances where they show effectiveness of these strategies, however, not demonstrating how to use them properly. Additionally, the authors are concentrating more on the second language as compared to adult learners of English as a second language. Finally, the authors do not show how the application of these strategies could be used by the groups in order to learn the language faster.

            The issue of  reading in English as a second language has been a thorn in the flesh for the indigenous people and has interested scholars for many years. It has been extremely difficult  for the  foreigners to learn English because of the effects of culture. For this reason, the article begins with the establishment of the processes involved in reading activity. The author of this article takes second language learning to the next step. This is where the author includes the human emotions and body science in the strategies of learning English as a second language. This way the author comes up with clear strategies that involve both learners and teachers in tapping all aspects for the purposes of effective learning and understanding of English.

            The author indicates the memory as an integral element of the effective learning, mentioning the short-term memory and the long-term memory. The article states that the strategies should be able to tap the long-term memory for the purposes of retaining the knowledge of the same longevity For instance, second language learners need to retain vocabulary in their memory so that they are able to use them in the future. It is explained by the fact that  vocabulary helps people understand better when they are reading any text in the future. Finally, the article states that second language learners fail to develop goals that are helpful in learning English. As a result, they end up failing terribly and blaming their teachers for poor results they get. Therefore, this article is extremely helpful in explaining the use of the human body as part of the strategy in learning English.

            The only problem with this article is that it is too complicated for the second language learners to be comprehended. Learners who are trying to use information in this article will have difficulties in understanding or comprehension of what is being written by the author. However, for the scholars it will be extremely helpful because they will be able to apply it while teaching second language learners. For this reason, it will be helpful for teachers bot not  students who need the information. However, the latter are going to benefit indirectly.

            Many researcher and scholars of this topic are working on finding out the theories that are applicable for both the learners and teachers to be further used. However, not all who come up with practical theories that could be used by both teacher and learners like this article. In this case, the article establishes practical theories that have been tested for the learners. The authors of this article writs it in a progressive manner, making it easy for the users of this information to follow. In this case, they have increased the overall efficiency of how learners learn English as a second language.

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            In the first chapter, the article indicates the importance of using second language acquisition for learners of English. This is where the learners are introduced briefly to the importance of using these theories. Second chapter indicates the theories themselves for the learners. The other chapters indicate different theories of second language acquisition for the learners to follow through, so that they can learn effectively. Finally, the article concludes by summarizing all chapters and exploring all techniques that could be used in teaching and learning. The article involves the readers who become involved in the effective learning process while reading it.

            The problem is that second language acquisition theories have numerous flaws. In this case, the article does not include any side effects of the theories for the learners and teachers to be use, they do not work. Moreover, the article does not specify the age of the readers, so that it does not identify whether the theories are applicable to children, adults or both. For this reason, it may be difficult for the teachers or learners to use if they do not belong to the group that theories are meant to be used in teaching. For this reason, it would be better if the group that is supposed to use this information were described. Additionally, second language acquisition flaws should be introduced to make the theories be used more effectively..

            Teachers have eluded themselves with myths and misconceptions about second language learners that should be avoided at all times. According to many studies, researchers forget to indicate these illusions by teachers that hinders learning second language acquisition. For this reason, the article starts with the statement of the myths. Secondly, the article continues stating what exactly teachers should do since these misconceptions are vague. Finally, the article comes up with a strategy for the teachers to use while avoiding these myths. Therefore, the article is extremely important for those teachers who assume false ideologies.

            There are five myths that teachers often assume about second language learners. The author explains how the myths are wrong and why teachers often believe these myths are true. Secondly, the only way to influence the efficacy of the process of second language learning after teachers have learned that these myths are worth being debunk is to avoid using them. Instead, they should develop other myths helpful to second language learners. This article concentrates more on children and for these reason teachers are encouraged to be delicate because it could be harder to teach children than they thought. Therefore, the article is full of information that can be used in teaching children.

            The problem with thearticle is that it does not provide myths and misconceptions that influence adult learners success in learning second language. It concentrates more on children, yet so many adults need to learn English as a second language. Additionally, there are myths to be learned about adults and should be avoided. Moreover, there are more than five myths currently being minded by teachers. The author of the article should have tried to include other myths currently used by teachers. In this situation, they should have gathered more information.


            Based on the above analysis of different research performed by scholars, there is an idea that second language learning has become a great problem for people who are learning English. Additionally, perfection or quality improvement of the learning process has not yet been achieved. Many scholars are coming up with theories and techniques to be used by both teachers and learners. Additionally, assumptions about second language learners have been made and yet they are said to be  false representation. For this reason, practical solutions are in need to be developed, being based on the errors made by students. Finally, they need to be tested for prove and implementations in areas where there are loopholes.

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