Pre Revolutionary Societies

The pre-revolutionary societies were made of distinct classes of people. We can say that they were clearly stratified. These social classes were had feature that made them such distinct. These features were, power, or those ruling, those who owed property in large chunks, and the very poor who did not own or owned very little. These formed the three social classes. The rulers kept themselves off the ruled.  This essay will discuss the main aspects that clear show that there was alienation of the ruled from the rulers. To do this it will focus on two pre-revolutionary societies, Russia and China. The leadership of these times did not focus on the people they were leading. The rather wanted to use them for their own gain. Their class was far apart from the people hey were leading. By 917 Russia was ripe for revolution. There many issues that aggravated the revolution. This was the growing political consciousness, the ideas of revolution and also the weak government. The government had further been weakened by participating in the Second World War. It had invested a lot it the war (Beck, 2007).In 1917, the first revolution overthrew the tsarist autocracy. This was the government of Tsar Nicholas II.  There existed a series of revolutions that led to the formation of the Soviet Union.  These governments were however not to serve well (Mastyugina, (n.d)). They did not satisfy the needs of the people. Though they came to power professing that they would provide what the autocratic government did not, they also failed.On the outset, the provisionary government was not a representative of the vast majority of the people. The Duma, the firs parliament was made up of people from the second class and upper class. There was only one person who did not come from those classes. He was Alexander Kerensky.  The duna was subtly divided, for some members were liberalist and others were conservative.  The make dint favor those people who had helped them fight had the Tsarism. This made them to form another group that caused trouble to provisional government.  These were the workers and the soldiers.  In this, the provisional government did not have favor at all with many of these people, the workers and the peasants. That clearly shows that the main feature pre-revolutionary societies were the alienation of the ruled from those who ruled them.

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Though this government came in with many promises, it did not fulfill all of them. It also failed to address the most serious issues that the Russians were longing for as they fought for change. Among the many promises given we have, freedom of speech, the press being given more freedom also, releasing political prisoners, the right for association and the right to strike. This however allowed opposition to grow.  During this period dual, power arose. The Provisional Government had the nation's supremacy whereas the nationwide net of Soviets, directed by socialists, had the people loyal to it. These were the lower class citizens and the politicians who were concerned about the peoples affairs. There failure to fulfill the people's desires and the freedoms given to the people sparked a lot of protests, shortly after it took power in February 1917 (Edmund, 1985).The provisionary government was overthrown in October that year by the Bolshevik Party under the leadership of Lenin Vladimir. Apart from their failure to fulfill what the people wanted, the provisionary government chose to continue participating in the war with Germany. This made them weaker.  This led to the ease of their defeat.  The Bolsheviks party formed militias that fought the government taking the advantage of their weakness. Still the background is the fact that they refused to turn their attention to the people and pursued their endeavors.  This was another fact about the way their rule alienated the ones they ruled.

The other thing the provisional government clearly neglected the concerns of the peasant farmers.  These also included the peasant soldiers who helped the government to overthrow the autocratic Tsarian government. The majority of the Russia's population is made up of the peasant farmers who did not own the land, or had very little. The provisionally government had not give.In china, things were not any different.  Between 1925 and 1927 there were a series of revolution that should have led the Chinese people to freedom. They also sparked from the rebellion by a faction of the people to the very much autocratic Government (Walkin, J. 2008).  The Guomindang which is the nationalist government of Jiang Jeshi overthrew the warlords in 1927. This was after a widespread rebellion of the peasant farmers against the landlords. They have thrown them out of the land and they were sharing it among themselves. The trade unions and the workers were also overthrowing the tyrants of the city.  This is also a very clear indication that the people of china had been completely alienated from their rulers.Contrary to the expectation that Jiang would implement democracy, he still remained very undemocratic in his 22 years in power (Pollot, 1982).  His government was made of a people who were from the elite of those days. These were wealthy business men, people controlling the banks, landowners and also the former warlords.   This shows clearly that this government pushed aside the people and remained afar off (Pollot, J. (1982).The essay has discussed the major problems that were seen in the pre-revolutionary societies.  The majority of the people were poor peasants and workers in the city places.  Most of the property that could be considered public was owed by a few powerful people in these societies. The rulers enforced the same by only using the he elites of that time to rule. They also subtly adopted dictatorial nature of their predecessors.  In this they kept the peasants and he poor workers far away from themselves and completely alienated themselves from them. Their policies were always widening the gap between the rich and the poor, the ruled and their rulers.

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