Theory of Kohlberg

Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development have emphasized on the evolution learning theory; the theory of moral developments, according to Kohlberg, comprises of the adaptation of a psychological learning theory. The theory holds that in the psychological learning moral reasoning is the key basis for ethical behaviors in an individual; the six developmental stages that were used by Kohlberg in the behaviors learning are real response to actual and moral dilemmas. The aspects of logic and morality are built up through the constructive ages in an individual (Larry, 2005).

The cognitive revolution in psychology is a response to behaviors learning. Psychology can become an objective science only if it is on the basis of behaviors that can be observed; since the mental processes cannot be practically observed, they tend to be avoided by most psychologists. The psychoanalytic theories emphasize on the importance of the unconscious, while the cognitive theories insist on the conscious thoughts. Cognitive psychologists dispute the restrictions of behaviorism in its center on observable behaviors. They argue that individual integrates the mental structure and the process into the learning theories. An internal focus on the behaviors of a person can represent the external reality that affirms a situation of objectivism that the mind can handle separately and autonomously from the body; therefore, the learnt knowledge can be transferred from the outside context of the mind into the inside of the mind. Wilson and Meyers (2000) exemplify such a situation well by indicating its effect on instructional design saying that "Instructional designers could now think of learning in terms of taking experts' cognitive structures and mapping that knowledge into the heads of learners the degree of similarity in cognitive structure between expert and novice was a good measure of whether learning objectives were being met” (David, 2007).

The internal illustration of learners can also be observed as a subjective construction of integrating the received information and the first-hand knowledge structures that involves a situation of constructivism that knowledge cannot exist autonomously from the knower.



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