Paradox of Sociality

Paradox of sociality is a mechanism of risk avoidance for animals that tend to live in excluded groups. Infanticide anthropoids live in one-male groups. In many groups, reproduction is not universal, and food supply is put under pressure. The resources are not shared equally among the members and individual variance in resource supply may be biased. Infanticides in anthropoid primates live in one-male group where the resident adult male is a protector of infant male. The anthropoids enjoy the protection of their infanticide until they mature fully. They guard against predation and in turn increase in population; this will counter the species being extinct.

The disadvantage of group living is that reproduction is skewed. Animals in the established group forego their reproduction and protect others to reproduce. However, there is also pressure in the food supply.

Male aggression social systems

Aggressive and affiliate behaviors of male primates vary depending on species, the individual and social context. Male to male aggression is predominant than female primates. In the first social system that is, single male single female orangutan there is no aggression because the male is single and there are no other males fighting for the single female. In single male multiple female as well as young males that will eventually take over but there is no aggression among the males here as the reproducing male in single. The most aggressive social system is the multi- male and multi female system. Males will dominate females individually, and dominance will lead to reproductive success only for males. This in effect makes aggressive males and passive females.

Aggression and infanticide in male relate to female access in that, the protected infanticide will eventually take over from the protector male. For both sexes, the control of benefit such as afflictive behaviors cannot be taken by force. This represents a source of leverage in interaction with others.


Primates exist in a number of groups that are independent on each group. The males are more aggressive among themselves in a group, and only one male can control a clone of females. The reproduction is thus skewed to one dominant male primate.



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