Evolution and Genetic Mutations essay

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Part A

Microevolution is the one that is responsible for the emergence of new species. This is because microevolution involves changes in the genes of an organism (Krogh, 2004). Macroevolution is not responsible for emergence of new species because changes in a species over time do not lead to the emergence of a new and completely different organism. In simpler terms, the fossil record shows that macroevolution is responsible for the emergence of new species or speciation but the truth is that microevolution is the one that plays a key role in speciation. The fossil records are the only support of macroevolution but it is not enough. There should also be records that show the mating patterns between organisms in the past. Macroevolution means that according to the fossil records, a new species is very different from the old species and they therefore are very incompatible and cannot mate with each other. This implies that since there is no mating between the organisms then there is no speciation and thus macroevolution is not responsible for speciation. 

Speciation comes from the changes in the gene of an organism in response to the changing environment. For instance, if the sea recedes and a sea animal finds itself on dry land, it will try to adapt to live on the dry land. This adaptation will have to be driven by changes in the gene pool. Without genotypic changes, the animal cannot be able to cope with the new and non-conventional physical conditions. Evolution tries to explain the origin of life but it does not lay out all the facts clear. If it is the origin of life, then evolution should be a continual process (Wallace, 2005). By now, human beings should still be evolving to become better like growing wings to fly because of the working environment and the globalised economy that needs much travelling.

Part B

The DNA Sequence is TACAAACATTTAACT

The Messenger RNA Sequence is AUGUUUGUAAAUUGA

The amino acid sequence is

Methionine-Phenylalanine-Valine-Asparagine-(UGA which implies Stop or termination of sequence)

The AUG sequence is a sign of the beginning of translation and it codes for the amino acid methionine into a polypeptide chain.

The significance of UGA is to signify the end of translation or termination of the polypeptide chain. However, the animal mitochondria's Messenger RNA use UGA  to code for the amino acid Tryptophan.

5. The DNA Sequence is TACAAACATTTAACT

After mutation, the sequence is TACAAAGATTTAACT

The Messenger RNA sequence is AUGUUUCUAAAUUGA

The amino acid sequence is

Methionine-Phenylalanine-Leucine-Asparagine-(UGA that implies Stop or termination of sequence).

The AUG sequence is a sign of the beginning of translation and it codes for the amino acid methionine into a polypeptide chain.

The significance of UGA is to signify the end of translation or termination of the polypeptide chain. However, the animal mitochondria's Messenger RNA uses UGA to code for the amino acid Tryptophan (Krogh, 2004).

The amino acid sequence has changed completely. It now has Leucine in the place of Valine. The new mutated protein will function differently from the original protein. Its function will not be altered because both Valine and Leucine are cholesterol precursors.

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