Three Chimpanzees essay

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For decades, mankind has been linked to the primate family with the support of the Darwinian theory of evolution. Natural selection, migration and genetic drift have more often than not been relied on as the foundation of the gradual transition from the primate family to the human species. Other supportive evidences include behavioral patterns, genetic similarities, bipedalism, fossils, ancient environments and comparative anatomy. For instance, some of the primates considered to provide solid evidence for the evolution of the human species from primates are the chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus) or pygmy chimpanzee. However, the evolution theory presents with a lacuna that has eluded many evolutionists. Therefore, this paper aims to dismiss the evolutionary theory that links the human species to the primates.

Evolutionary Loopholes

Though many biologists, anthropologists and religious philosophers have brought forth many arguments for evolution, it is marred in uncertainty and inconsistencies. To begin with, evolution posits that life originated from simple non-life forms that changed to living cells, an idea that beats logical thinking. Laboratory experiments that have tried to work with the supposed atmospherically present conditions at the time of evolution, have revealed the impossibility of life surviving without the presence of reducing gasses like hydrogen, ammonia and methane. Thus, the belief that a first living cell came by chance would require faith much like it would require faith to believe in the existence of a creator (Safarti, 2008). Moreover, evolutionists hold that it takes millions of years for one group of species to metamorphose to another group which of course is dependent on many factors in play like environmental changes.  The lifespan of a chimpanzee for instance is approximately 50-60 years; therefore, it is impossible for the primates to develop into more sophisticated life forms within such a short duration of time.

Jablonski (2002) points out that “the most important similarity among all three chimps is that many of their behaviors are learned rather than instinctive, and are handed down faithfully from one generation to the next.” This is misleading since it implies that if a chimpanzee were to be separated from its parents, then it will not be able to climb trees since it has to be taught. It may also imply that a chimpanzee can develop ability to talk like humans if it were to live in their company something that is impossible. On the contrary, a chimpanzee will make similar sounds like its parents and climb trees like any other chimpanzee because they are instinctively wise. A human being, though, may not develop particular skills possessed by the mother if they are separated. The behavior of the child is shaped by the surrounding environment making the child to behave differently from the parents simply because humans have the capacity to learn by imitation courtesy of a higher form of intelligence.

In addition, Jabulonski (2002) mention that the habitual threat displays through use of a bipedal stance is instrumental to the transformation “from quadrupedalism to bipedalism.”  One of the main benefits of bipedalism is the preservation of energy since only two limbs are engaged in locomotion. Other reasons that have been forwarded include exposure of less skin to the sun, ease of movement to obtain a variety of food sources and displaying threats against other males while scrambling for food. From my point of view, I do not see strong evidence backing the transition of the chimpanzee and the bonobo to the third chimp: Man. In any case, the fact that they possess long hair all over their body is an adaptation that helps them to preserve energy. Besides, the chimpanzee and the bonobo rely much on trees for their movement which is characterized by jumping from one tree to another. Ground movement is thus not necessary since their food is mostly found on trees; trees also give them a vintage position for observing their enemies before they move to the ground. Bipedalism is displayed by other animal species like the Kangaroo and other mammals yet they are not as closely associated to humans.

Furthermore, sexual behavior of the bonobo is done as a way of resolving any situation of conflict. On the contrary, sexual encounter in the human species occur between two consenting adults purposely to procreate or to satisfy ones emotional needs. The scrotal rubbing and genito-genital rubbing is allowed in male and female bonobos; in human beings, however, this sexual behavior known as homosexuality, is considered abnormal and is a form of moral breakdown. Besides, the sexual behavior of the bonobos occurs between all age groups, something that is not welcomed among the human species.

Conclusion

Some of the proponents of evolution have also cast doubt over the belief in it. For instance, Darwin, the pioneer of evolution theory was disturbed by the lack of several transitional forms if at all species came from insensible fine gradations. Moreover, he wondered why animal species were well defined instead of presenting confusion which he clarified that he could not give a satisfactory answer to (Darwin, 2007, p. 108). Other evolutionists like Derik Ager have also commented that a detailed examination of the fossil records revealed that evolution never occurred gradually but was a sudden explosion from one group to another (Yahya, Livingston & Evans, 2003, p. 123). Consequently, the argument presented above throws its full weight behind the one explanation for the existence of the unique creatures on earth, Creation.

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