Jane Bristol`s article “A Lexicon of Migrants in the UAE” reports that the UAE demography has been basically increased by the imported human laborers. The fast country`s development was guaranteed by the migrants, which built the urban centers of the greatest cities of the Gulf States, such as Dubai, Sharjah, and Abu Dhabi. There were three migrant waves to UAE. The first wave took place in the 60s; at that time the corporations needed manual workers and scientists to recover oil reserves. The second wave occurred in the mid-80s until the mid-90s, when the cities of the UAE required construction. The third wave began at the beginning of the 21st century. The UAE six million habitant`s population comprises 85 % of foreign nationals. The migrants in UAE vary from community to community – apart from the construction workers, who arrived during the three migration waves, there are migrants that hold different posts, from teachers to drivers. These communities, though, are isolated from the society of UAE and other communities, because they are lower social strata. The greatest separation between the migrants and the Emirati Arabs is the lingual inequality.
There are two types of foreign workers communities in UAE: the sponsored and contracted ones. The contract laborers have low level of education, and are employed to make road works, do construction, deal with agriculture, etc. Such laborers are mainly Indian, and Pakistani, and they earn very little money – less than 190 dollars on a monthly basis. Sponsored workers are those who have residence visas, and are mainly western people. Basically, western people are denoted as ‘expatriates’, but the Emiratis call them ‘foreigners’, and the last ones are in favor, whilst the Asians are often treated as garbage.
The article “Keeping Migrant Workers in Check” by Anh Nga Longva describes the current situation, occurring in Kuwait (one of the Gulf Cooperation Council`s country), which concerns the contract workers. All the workers in Kuwait must depend each on their own sponsor-employer (kafeel), which repatriates the worker at his own charges and engages for his employee. The migrants are not enabled to offer his/her services to the higher bidder, because the GCC countries do not have a free market, so the contest for a better job occurs in the worker`s native country. After having signed the contract, most of the workers try to endure the work they have chosen `till the end of the latter, otherwise they will be bound to pay the return ticket with their own money.
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The employers are not allowed to free movements about the GCC countries and abroad, because their passports are confiscated by their employers until the termination of the contract. The underpaid laborer`s conditions are also aggravated by possible discord of the employer to break the contract. In such cases, the worker has no other choice but to run away and to live illegally in Kuwait, until the embassy will negotiate his dismissal from the contract. The many illegals do not risk to be caught by the Kuwaiti police, for the latter does not have enough material supplies to prevent the country from illegal migrants` afflux. The ‘alien’ workers also run risks of being deported because of breaking the rules of Kuwaiti customs. This law can be used as a threat to the employees, if the kafeels would like to get rid of their worker for free. Nevertheless, the migrants in Kuwait are protected by the Labor Law, which advocates the aliens from their employers (only if the laborer`s complaint is well-proved). On the other hand, household workers are not protected by this Law, inasmuch as the relationship between the domestic servants and the employer are considered intimate and are not regarded enough grave to be examined in court.