Diversity is the ways that people differ in organizations or groups. It is a challenge in organization and groups because there are different groups of people and they differ in many ways. There are many challenges and issues related to group work based on the fact that, members of a group may be having different opinions and views on certain issues causing conflicts and misunderstanding (Trotzer, 1999). The issues which arise mostly are related to race, organizational function, background, tenure, cognitive style, personality, age, gender and ethnic group.
When solving or guiding people in the society concerning several issues, it important to understand their background in depth. Diversity does not only focus on how people think of others and how they conceive themselves but how this affects their interaction and general way of life (Corey, 2007).
These issues which arise are the ones we see the differences among the members of the group. The differences that arise in a group in form of gender, ethnicity and race have made many people to lack unequal access of resources and opportunities. Some races, ethnic groups or gender have been favored in a group in one way or another. To understand some of these issues and to bring all the people in the group together, it needs soberness, openness and understanding among all members of the group. To accommodate everybody’s opinion in a group is very difficult and that calls for a compromise which may not work well with other members of the group (Trotzer, 1999).
Some races, ethnic groups and either of the gender may feel sidelined or dominated by the majority; hence becoming an issue in a group which accommodates many people.
Different clusters or people have different effects in a group and many people argue that, work groups will behave differently depending the how other members of the group behave. Every person has a unique and complex relationship with others in a group based on the different issues surrounding the group (Levitov & Fall, 2000).
Group work in the ending Phase
Group work has different phases or stages and each phase are significant at all times. The ending phase of an individual participation in a group is very important and need to be addressed as a different issue all together. Forming and establishing relationships in the treatment groups or teams is crucial for the success of the group. Conflicts are usually essential in a group because this is what crystallize individual gains and enhances internalization of individual experiences and achievements in the group of counseling and guiding the people in the society (Trotzer, 1999).
The ending phase is important in the group because it is not casually to dismiss the relationship, but it is the time to do a meaningful work for the group to realize its goals and objectives. The ending phase in a group may rejuvenate a resurgence of presenting the previous misunderstanding and conflicts in the group. It may also result in stimulation of the previous separations and losses caused by unresolved conflicts (Corey, 2007).
At this phase, it provides reinforcement for the growth and change in the group as they experiment new behaviors. This will ensure positive experience in completing the phase of life or task. Ending phase or termination provides an opportunity for the members of the group to reexamine and rework their relationship so as to accomplish all the tasks that pertains their goals and objectives. An individual member in a group is afforded an opportunity to rework the current relationship in the process so as to develop tools for her future and to practice new behaviors (Levitov & Fall, 2000).
Group in the ending phase will help the group members to share their feelings and to give feedback to the worker. This is the time the group evaluate their work together and to assess their personal and group progress. This is important phase in making resolutions and the changes that have resulted from each member’s participation in the group. Finally, this is the time to point direct and indirect member’s reactions so as to proceed to the next level or to be of help in future work groups (Corey, 2007).
Group dynamics in the ending phase
Members are dynamic and they emotionally bond with each other in the whole process of counseling and sharing ideas and opinions. Group dynamic at this ending phase can interfere with the productive, satisfying, development and productive group. The most difficult dynamics in this ending phase is how to manage power and decision making. Groups can get caught in trying to making crucial decisions as nothing can be agreed upon. Groups without a formal and a designated leader are the ones affected; hence they will go through potentially destructive and uncomfortable time of managing themselves (Trotzer, 1999).
The group can fall apart at this phase due to disturbances that arise given that, this is the birthing pains or the lasts days when results should be analyzed. Group dynamics are important in building a successful group based on the intimacy, influence and inclusion. Members of the group would like to be seen as having a working relationship at the inclusion. The group may feel guilty if they have not achieved their targets. It is not very easy to work with many people from different diverse gender, races and ethnic background. This calls for harmonization of all views so as accommodate all the members of the group (Levitov & Fall, 2000).
Leadership skills and tasks of ending phase
Termination or ending phase is very important and it is an opportunity for all members of the group to work. The leaders have the responsibility of ensuring there is order in the group by ensuring all activities are accomplished within a specific period of time. The leaders should possess some basic skills such that they can influence the people so as to avoid conflicts and misunderstanding. Some of these skills include: communication and coordination skills, organizational skills, risk taking, open, honesty, focused, principled, determined and can control and direct the people in the group (Trotzer, 1999).
Leaders should have those skills and be able to examine the impact of the group on each person, acknowledge feelings caused by the departure, completing unfinished work, giving and receiving of all group members and assigning each member a role to play and undertaking all the tasks pertaining leadership and administration. Leadership skills are crucial at this stage because this is the final phase of the group where results are expected so as to know whether the group achieved its goals and objectives. It is the responsibility of the leaders to show good leadership at all times by incorporating the required leadership skills. The members of the group must choose leaders with leadership skills and who are up to the task of ensuring the group achieves its targets (Corey, 2007).
Maintaining changes achieved in and/or by the group
For the group to maintain the changes, it has to understand organizational change and guide a successful change effort. The change agents must keep and maintain the system by ensuring it understands the objectives and goals of the group. For the changes to be maintained, those taking over the leadership roles, they must understand the structures and basic systems in the group including the roles and terms (Levitov & Fall, 2000).
Management and leadership of the group should be clearly understood by ensuring all activities are well planned and organized so as to maintain the changes achieved. Organized leadership will ensure changes that will have been achieved are maintained. When the overall strategy is well known, then the changes achieved in the group will be accommodated well and the group will continue to exist at all times (Levitov & Fall, 2000).
Losses and separations in lives of members and leaders as they affect group’s ending
Group work has been important in solving social problems in the community or our societies. Losses and separation in the lives of members and leaders can affect the group’s endings, negatively. When there is misunderstanding, it can make the group’s ending very bad by not realizing its objectives or goals (Corey, 2007).
Members and the leaders should have one thing in common and that is to a common objective and vision of the group. The loss of key members and leaders of the group may not work as expected to the group’s ending. The leaders must come together and unite the members of the group so as to avoid losses and separation especially at the group’s ending (Trotzer, 1999).
Evaluation is to generate ideas used in the group itself, final stage, evaluate ideas and to select one idea as a possible solution to the problem proposed to the group (Levitov & Fall, 2000).The evaluation techniques should be able to monitor and measure the success and progress of the group work at all times.The steps in the evaluation techniques should be systematic and each technique has a specific role to perform and must achieve the expected group goals. The two common evaluation techniques in group work are nominal group technique and the group passing technique (Levitov & Fall, 2000).
The nominal group technique is brainstorming that encourages and motivates all the participants or members of the group to have an equal say in the whole process of generating ideas. All participants are required to give ideas anonymously and voting will be conducted so as to get the required ideas in process called distillation of ideas (Corey, 2007).
After this process, the top ranked ideas will be directed to the group for further brainstorming and analysis in order to understand the whole idea. This is a pillar in determining the success or the failure of the group. The facilitators are trained before they attempt to facilitate and coordinate this evaluation technique. The members of the group and the leaders must support for it to give a true and a reliable picture of the group before important ideas are tackled (Levitov & Fall, 2000).
The group passing technique is where each member of the group writes one idea and then passes the circulating paper in a clockwise direction for the other members to give their views. After that, the group will have elaborate ideas to discuss for the problems affecting the group to be discussed. The meeting is then called to discuss the arising issues from the ideas generated. Though this evaluation technique takes long, it allows the members to think deep into the problems and any progress within the group. Team idea mapping method is important because it improves collaboration, unity and increases the quantity opinions and ideas. All ideas are generated then prioritized for action to be taken (Trotzer, 1999).
Life Course and Group
Life can be stressing and draining sometimes due to the lifestyles. To adapt to changes is quite significant and the life course is meant to give new opportunities. This will help members to learn how to recognize and manage their personal stress and responses as well as ensuring they cope with all people in the group. This is the only way it gives direction to the group and to overcome negativity thinking so that one can move forward with life so as reach the full potential. The course helps to strategize and combat severe anxiety and panic attacks and to fight the harmful effects in the group (Trotzer, 1999). This will help give confidence and strengthen relationship in the group. From the group experience, it is important to keep and maintained a united group for it to realize its goals and to have rules that control dynamics in the group (Levitov & Fall, 2000).