Birth process and labor can be grouped into three steps. The first labor stage starts when one start having some contractions that lead to some changes that tend to be progressive changes in the cervix and usually ends up with the cervix being fully dilated. The said stage can be then divided into three stages. These stages are; the latent phase which gets followed by transition phase and then the active phase. In early labor, the cervix gradually thins out and later opens up while in active labor the cervix starts to open up more rapidly. The second labor stage starts when one is dilated fully and then ends with the baby’s birth. The contractions that happen at this time tend to be regular and spaced. The third stage of labor begins immediately after the baby’s birth and usually ends up with the placenta delivery (Murray & Huelsmann 2009).

Causes and Treatment of Infertility

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Infertility can be described as a woman’s inability to conceive after having unprotected sex regularly. Infertility can be in both women and men. Infertility in women can be said to be caused by different levels of hormone that hinders the ovary from releasing an egg or from having an egg that is fertilized being implanted in the uterus lining. It can also be caused by having too little or having poor quality mucus in the cervix which happens sometimes due to surgery. Infertility can also get caused by some genetic conditions such as Turner’s syndrome, in which a woman has just got one chromosome and might not be in a position to develop pubic hair completely or develop breasts.

Infertility can be treated in some ways. If the woman has eggs but she is not in a position to release them, she may be given fertility drugs that may help to bring ovulation. Women can also have assisted conception where an intrauterine insemination gets used. A fine catheter gets inserted right into the uterus through the cervix. This gets done to place the sperm (Harrison 1977).

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