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Medical based therapy is much effective compared with no treatment. Despite the fact, that treatment is done with the help of therapy, less than half of individuals who use this strategy find themselves in the non-distressed range. Medical based therapy involves careful analysis of therapeutic relationship, stigma and conflict of interventions. These involve the use of drugs after consulting a doctor to solve a health problem. On the other hand, drug-free aspect involves monitoring of a health problem without consulting a doctor for drugs. It is also called no treatment, as one will not use drugs to handle the situation. Some of the therapies of support over years include behavioral, emotional and cognitive behavioral (Lowinson 106). Behavioral therapy is because of social learning, and theories related with social exchange, which analyzes the influence of the environment, behaviors, emotions, costs and associated rewards.
On the other hand, cognitive, behavioral therapy considers techniques and ideas of predecessors. These target much cognition that includes partners’ assumptions, standards of relationship, previous partners’ attributes, expectations and selective assumptions to some issues. Integrative, behavioral therapy does not only focus on behavioral change, but also, emphasizes on understanding and acceptance of an existing problem. Emotionally focused therapy emphasizes on the attachment to an issue in question rather than change of behavior. At times, individuals find themselves in chronic states such that they find it useless to consult a relevant person for necessary assistance. For instance, an individual suffering from substance abuse may not find it necessary to seek assistance and, instead, prefer to live a life that is drug free. This may have resulted from social problems or peer influences of the fact that it is needless to visit a doctor or counselor for assistance.
Discussion of the Various Signs and Symptoms of the Substance Abuse Disorder, Using DSM-IV-TR
To be able to handle a health problem, necessary procedures are worth adherence. This is based on the signs and symptoms associated with the problem according to the requirements of DSM-IV-TR as a guideline. In this case, signs and symptoms to analysis are those from substance abuse that finally leads to a disorder. Substance or drug abuse refers to a maladaptive pattern regarding the use of drugs and substances not dependent. Some of the substances commonly abused include alcohol, cocaine and caffeine among other substances. The main issues regarded as being the causes of substance abuse are not well defined. However, some people claim that substance abuse is caused by the social environment, genetic factors and psychopathology.
Signs and Symptoms of Substance Abuse
According to DSM-IV-TR, there are seven symptoms out of which, at least three should be identified within a given 12-month’s period in diagnosis of substance abuse (Roemer and Orsillo 100). When an individual is suffering from substance dependencies, some of the common symptoms include
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1. Tolerance whereby an individual is in need of more of the substance so that he or she can meet the desired effect, on the other hand, an individual may have reduced effect on further use of the substance.
2. Withdrawal that results when one stops using the substance, which is accompanied by emotional change, unpleasant mental interference and psychological problems.
3. In the long-term, consumption of the substance will call for much quantity for it to have an effect.
4. Persistent desire to lessen or stop the use of abused substance but always unsuccessful.
5. Affected person always spend most of his or her time using the substance or trying to recover from the effect.
6. Over time, significant social activities and work begins to decline due the use of the substance.
7. Despite the negative psychological and physical effects of the substance, an individual continue with its use.
Based on the requirements of DSM-IV-TR, the signs include
1. Individuals who engage in substance abuse face recurrent failure to fulfill home obligations, work or school duties.
2. Substance abuse is hazardous if one uses them and drives, operates machines.
3. Individuals abusing substances always find themselves in legal problems such as drug related arrests.
4. An individual persistently uses the substance despite the negative relationship and social consequences.
Substance abuse individuals always like doing their work in isolation or with fellow individuals because, in most cases, it is difficult to find such people working with sober people. Most of the times, substance abuse individuals are not able to produce quality work as desired.
The Contrast between Living Long on the Street and Receiving No Treatment with the Forced Institutional Treatment
Over years, there has been a debate regarding the contrast between living long on the street and receiving no treatment with the forced institutional treatment. According to living long in the streets without treatment, substance abuse individuals are assisted by family members to learn living without drugs. At institutions of treatments, substance abuse individuals are subject to rehabilitation through set up programs conducted by qualified individuals. At institutions of treatment, individuals are able to get services from qualifies personnel who are capable of using necessary procedures. On the other hand, living long in the streets do not use the right approach to issues because of the lack of professionalism. In the streets, most of the issues are handled traditionally without any professionalism. This will lead to stigma and conflict of intervention especially to substance abuse individuals. For instance, if counseling is done to a substance abuse individual by non-professionals, in the street, they will go ahead to spread the issue in the public. Unlike in situations where counseling is done by a professional, high level of privacy will prevail. This is because professionals are governed by professional ethics for the need of high-level privacy.
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How the Debate of Conventional Treatment Differ from what we See in Society
Conventional treatment refers to a treatment accepted and widely used currently to curb a disease or a problem such as substance abuse disorder. According to the demands of American psychiatric association, three goals for treating people with substance abuse disorder exist. These goals include ensuring that patients reduce or abstain from the use of substances; to ensure reduction of frequency and severity of relapses; and to ensure that a patient develops emotional and psychological skills to restore and maintain normal functioning. Before the commencement of any form of treatment, detoxification is necessary. Detoxification is where a patient is subject to weaning from substance use. Once detoxification is over; treatment commences whereby a patient is subject to assessment; a treatment plan is formulated and, finally, psychiatric management. During the assessment stage, a patient is critically evaluated on issues relating with his or her history. Historical issues evaluated include patients past and current substance use; medical and psychiatric issues; social and family history and other laboratory tests (Fisher and Harrison 98).
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On completion of assessment, formulation of a treatment plan commences. In the formulation of the treatment plan, it will be varying depending on the phases of disorder. Treatment plan should include the following elements, psychiatric management strategy of the patient; strategies of reducing the patients’ substance abuse; compliance to treatment efforts and treatment to other substance abuse related conditions. At the psychiatric management stage, treatment plans formulated are subjected to implementation. Currently, in the society where we live most people do not include all the mandatory elements to ensure treatment of a substance abuse patient. In the society, many short cuts are common, for instance, instead of subjecting one to detoxification first, one is directly taken to psychosocial therapy or pharmacologic treatment. This includes the use of cognitive, behavioral therapy, family therapy and interpersonal therapy. In addition, in the society pharmacological treatment involves the issue of medication that can assist an individual in easing withdrawal symptoms, to interact negatively with abused substances, reduce craving and even discourage an individual from taking drugs. As a result, lead to treatment of associated psychiatric disorders.
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Importance of a Therapeutic Relationship and the Person who Provides
Therapeutic relationship is a relationship between a client and a counselor. According to research findings, it is clear that the therapeutic relationship is essential in ensuring a successful recovery by an individual from addiction (Wiener and Rosen 70). A common challenge associated with this relationship arises in trying to match a client and a counselor. To ensure that this challenge is eliminated, it is vital to ensure that client and counselor trust themselves. In addition, a strong rapport should exist so that a client can freely talk to the counselor. As a result, therapeutic relationship helps in ensuring that a client is able to disclose all the necessary information regarding his or her live freely and get the necessary support from a counselor. This is possible because the client is always confident that high level of privacy will dominate. In addition, therapeutic relationship is long term. This is significant to substance abuse disordered individuals, because, rehabilitating an addict can take much time. It takes much time because of the many stages involved in recovery, which needs reasonable length of time. It is from this aspect that the therapeutic relationship is crucial because an individual will have enough time to recover fully. A counselor always provides therapeutic relationship to a client
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