Table of Contents
This study will give a detailed view about the nose and its different size and shape in a 15-year-old population. It will go ahead and illustrate more on the use of the 3D techniques related to the face, which are the cone beam computed tomography, the CT scans and the Combined Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computed Tomography (CT) and their disadvantages on the human body. The study will also seek to explain on the breathing disorders and in this case majorly dwell on Asthma in the children and its characteristics as well as its connection to the nose.
The nose is the main entry to the respiratory system. It is located in the middle of the face. It has two holes known as the nostrils, which are separated from the nasal passages by the septum. The septum is comprised of thin pieces of bones and is made of a flexible material known as the cartilage. The cartilage is firmer than the muscle or even the skin but on the other hand, it is not as hard as a bone. It major function is to spread clean atmospheric air to respiratory system. The smells of perfume, roses, and freshly baked cookies are all made possible by the nose, which transmits it to the brain. Olfaction involves identification and perception of substances that float in the atmosphere. Chemical fragments go in the nose and soften in mucous in the membrane known as the olfactory epithelium. In people, the olfactory epithelium is situated about seven centimeters up the nose from the nostrils.
Cells found in the hairs inside the nose are the receptors in the olfactory epithelium, which act in response to particular elements. These cells are made up of small hairs identified as an axon on one side and cilia on the other side. In human beings, there are approximately forty million olfactory receptors, while in the German shepherd dog; there are around two billion olfactory receptors.
Different people have different shapes of noses and scientists have attempted to classify them into different classes. These classes are the Aquiline or the Roman nose that is somewhat convex but surging, the Greek nose, which is also known as the straight nose and as it name suggests it is straight, the wide-nostrilled or the African nose, which is thick and broad and wide at end but it gradually widens from below the bridge, the Hawk or Jewish nose that is very convex and maintains its convexity like a bow since it is sharp and thin, the Celestial or turn up nose that has a continuous concavity from the eyes to the tip and finally the snub nose. The turned up nose, which is also known as the concave nose is characterized by a depression in the middle of the nose with a protruding tip. The depression is due to the bulky and bulbous tip and this nose is most common in the Caucasian. The straight nose has a narrow nostril and a pointed tip and is most common in Greeks. The convex nose has a more projected nose shape with an outward curve in the middle, which protrudes from the face; it is mostly common among the Romans. A snub nose is somewhat smaller and is mostly turned up as well.
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In a number of cases, the tip is neither round nor flat and is slightly turned up bringing an impression of someone who is snobbish. The Nubian nose is many a times long and a very wide base. A hooked nose also known as the hawk nose has a bend in the middle and sharp contours. It is much like a hawk’s beak. The flat nose has flared and wide nostrils with a short bridge and a round tip; this nose is most common among the Asian as well as the African American. Finally, the wavy nose is because of injuries or even deformities. It has warped shapes that are humpy or bumpy and it could be genetically formed. Various things can influence the different nose shapes. Among the most common aspects influencing the shapes, sizes as well as the types of noses are cultural background, genetics, fractures, the human, evolution, climate or even injuries obtained.
1.1 General Objective
The purpose of this study is to look at the different nose shapes and classify these shapes to establish the prevalence in a population of 15-year olds.
1.2 Specific Objectives
To develop reproducible 3D classifications for nose shape
To examine gender differences in respect to nose shape
To explore differences in nose shape in asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals
1.3 Scope of the Study
The study was carried out on a sample of children aged fifteen years in Britain with the statistics being obtained from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).The sample comprised of 2514 females and 2233 males. In assessing the nose morphology, 3D laser scans were used.
1.4 Conceptual Framework
This study was conceived from the understanding that human beings have different types of noses with minor differences and it is hard to classify each one-nose type to a particular group. On the other hand, different people that are the Hispanic, African, Asian or Caucasian are considered to have common types of nose shapes. This categorization has been made more difficult due to the rise in the integration of the different groups and races of people.
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