Table of Contents
- Positive Behaviour Programs
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- Places Where Positive Behaviour Programs have Been Implemented
- Quality Concerns
- The United States fast track programs
- Child Development Project
- Coping Cat Program
- Current Position of Corporal of Punishment in the School System
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The implementation of key positive behaviour programs in the elementary school system is a major challenging task seen among education program administrators in various school settings. This usually involves a brain storming approach among key stakeholders of educational institutional stakeholders who play a significant role towards the emancipation of an child’s education goals in the current settings. The recent status of events demands critical involvement of stakeholders, not only towards planning behavioural assessment programs, but also towards the accomplishment of key institutional variations within a state’s jurisdiction (Edgar, 2003). This is because the subsequent creation of a program centred around one major professional opinion has been proven to lead to higher failure rates especially when it comes to compliance and monitoring of the desired behavioural variables.
Positive Behaviour Programs
The development of positive behaviour programs has adopted such a phenomenal approach ever since contenders of the system freshly started their campaigns for its adoption in current educational frameworks with regard to elementary school settings. The mode for developing behaviour programs is elementally based on carrying out an initial assessment of the impending behavioural circumstances and practices in the affected institutional settings. According to the response to stimuli mechanism formulated for disciplinary notions, “Each school of thought pertaining to how pupils learn has some basic principles to suggest in disciplining pupils. The stimulus-response school of thought emphasize reinforcement as a very important concept. Thus, the learner will do his best to exhibit proper behaviour since he generally will want recognition or reward” (Ediger, 2004). This forms a critical reference point on which majority of educational behavioural programs are elementally based on, especially with special reference to the elementary school context.
“School-wide positive behaviour support (SW-PBS) is a behaviour-based proactive approach to building a school’s capacity to deal with the wide array of behavioural challenges. It emphasizes the: (a) the prevention and reduction of chronic problem behaviour, (b) active instruction of adaptive skills, (c) a continuum of consequences for problem behaviours and (d) interventions learners with the most intractable problem behaviours” (Mitchell, 2007). This basically provides the levels at which positive behavioural programs can be fundamentally be implemented in accordance to the prevailing circumstances and other accompanying factors in its jurisdiction. Focusing upon the contemporary school environment the major aim introducing positive behavioural programs is subject to multiple occurrences of key factors in its successive implementation. In addition, it involves the application of strategies which are destined to have far and wide reaching implications focusing on the level of efficacy desired, which fundamentally determines the mode and approach that will be used to fulfil the desired objectives. Positive behavioural programs plays a critical role on the transformation of the manner in which punishment is administered to subjects who are children in a relatively humane manner targeting the causative elements associated with the development of a social concern.
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The major aim of positive behavioural programs revolve around providing solutions that are essential in providing lasting solutions to recurring social problems associated with developing children. “Instead of positive, cooperative and helpful, a student with antisocial behaviour is one who is negative, hostile, and aggressive in his or her interactions across a range of settings” (Lane et al, 2009). Positive behavioural mechanism therefore strive towards the attainment of critical milestones in the development of child specific information (elementary level) with an aim of sparking the influence that the child requires in order attain social stability as he or she interacts with various facets of society.
Places Where Positive Behaviour Programs have Been Implemented
Positive behavioural programs have been implemented in various geographical localities with significant success considering the various contextual variables. These programs have had relatively different forms of thematic concerns depending on the dominating social concern in the respective geographical location or educational institution. Among key positive programs include the Ardoch primary (elementary) school project, the exploring together program, the US fast track programs, child development project and the gate house project. In addition these programs have strategically been followed up by transitional component programs, which generally aim at providing supportive options and in aid in establishing a continuity framework for the mentioned programs involved at the elementary school level.
There is also a significant gap in the establishment of important policies that can be used to implement quality control procedures. Policy formulation is hence a critical step in ensuring top quality of products and service deliverables. This is because they provide provisions that can be instituted into an enterprise’s business environment in order to control the manner in which policies are being transformed in the business environment. The institution of incompetent policies that have been formulated by a non professional body puts significant doubt on the quality and level of service provision seen in majority of institutional arrangements. This because they lead to a promotion of non professional practices in the services and products produced at the final point hence they eventually end up in the distribution stream.
Ardoch Primary School Support Project (Australian Drug Foundation, 2004)
The main aim of the project was to enhance the adoption of programs focused at introducing prevention and intervention at the primary school level (Australian Drug Foundation, 2004). First, the programs were essentially focused at attaining high levels of learning opportunities for young school children at this age. Through this initiative several milestones were established regarding the achievement of key developmental approaches for the desired learning objectives in which students are taught positive mechanism of learning while avoiding potential effects of being involved in potentially harmful activities, for instance, their subsequent involvement in drug-abuse and related programs. Secondly, the program aimed at enhancing and developing support programs aimed at reaching further levels that are essentially past the school environment but which still fall within the elementary school framework. This essentially involved the implementation of programs aimed at developing and initiating key development programs for students including their families (Australian Drug Foundation, 2004). The essentially pursued the implementation of the family-child integrated model in which the family members assist the teachers in extending the feasible approaches of reaching desired behavioural impact. Here the key role of the family is to provide feedback regarding efficacy of the program in terms of its desired deliverables. Thirdly, the program aims at integrating relevant governmental agencies, community based agencies and programs, and business organizations (Australian Drug Foundation, 2004). These essentially become the key stakeholders who are mandated to positively impact on the school program in terms of assessing key input actors from each participating member or organisation. The major aim here is the enhancement of role definition principles in order to establish key guidelines for implementation and assessment.
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The United States fast track programs
This program critically aims at making an attempt of increasing key behavioural aspects focusing on the introduction of emotional regulation, improving development of positive social relationships among children, and focusing on the reduction of increased instances of antisocial behaviours (Australian Drug Foundation, 2004). The program therefore essentially targets school children at grade 1 who are potentially and incrementally introduced through progressive elements focusing on intervention aspects which are equally aimed at instituting the desired behavioural changes. The program also includes a component focusing on the introduction of specific aggressive child behaviours in addition class room control fundamentals (Australian Drug Foundation, 2004). The program essentially involves the exposure of this group of children to changing aspects of the local school environment with an aim of deliberately singling out instances of aggression then formulating approaches, which will be progressively applied according to the educational context and child upbringing background. The project therefore aims at instituting potential behavioural changes aspects into the framework of learning through critical policy initiatives that can successfully be adopted to institute the desired mechanisms of change.
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Child Development Project
This essentially involves the introduction of programs aimed at turning school environment into influential behaviour changing locations through the introduction of a caring aspect into the school program. The aim is to impact upon the children such that they become proactive towards their involvement in key developmental aspects in terms of behaviour change and other practical models. They also have a fundamental aim of formulating cooperative learning environments with an aim of forming influential school partnership programs that consequently lead to the reduction of drug use among students including other potential behavioural programs that can impact positively upon this group of students (Australian Drug Foundation, 2004). The major aim is to institute mechanism through which these programs would impact upon the subjects in as much as the impact on the driving objective of the campaign is more desired. The program also potentially cuts across key audience involving primary and secondary level school students (Australian Drug Foundation, 2004). The aspect here is to increase the level of participatory element through integration of school environment aspects, educational perspectives, and optimally child development objectives.
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Coping Cat Program
This program fundamentally focuses on the achievement of key developmental aspects in the fulfilment of children related anxiety related programs. The program therefore entails the provision of assistance to children towards the identification of occurring anxious feelings and consequently suggest feasible modes of coping with the anxiety related problems (Striegler & Lever, 2008). The major aim here is to enhance the development of key approaches capable of giving children a lasting solution on the enhancement of feasible solutions of dealing with anxiety taking into account the situational variations or other occurring limitations towards the institution of the desired outcomes. The coping cat mechanism entails the provision of 16 learning sessions in which during the first are introduced to practical concepts in anxiety reduction while the last session involves the incorporation of skills used in successfully dealing with reduction of anxiety (Striegler & Lever, 2008).
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Current Position of Corporal of Punishment in the School System
In the recent past the aspect of corporal punishment has take a wild turn towards with the development of better behaviour change programs aimed at subjectively impacting upon the delivery of desired deliverables associated with the behaviour theme (Edgar, 2003). In the current modern society, corporal punishment receives less attention even coming from human rights activists who contend that in the present the issue that used to be spark major debates in the educational field leading to the development of positive behaviour changes programs as evident in the existing education institutional frameworks.
However, the aspects of corporal punishment in itself can various forms of variations in terms of the contextual definitions in different states. For instance, “Corporal punishment in US public schools usually takes the form of a student hit on the buttocks and upper thighs with a wooden paddle” (Human Rights Watch, 2008). The aspect of corporal punishment in its real sense has different facets of life through significant involvement of students, parents, and teachers towards its acceptance as a practical mode of punishment as opposed to the use of other approaches. There instances, it is still practiced in much unnoticeable manner. The mechanics of corporal punishment in public schools essentially help to bring to the fore the reason as to why it remains a relatively poor choice or mode of instituting punishment (Human Rights Watch, 2008). This is because it is currently undergoing policy and legislative formulation courtesy of the numerous rights groups in existence. “The instruments used and the position of the child during the beatings are designed to cause pain and humiliation to the child. This, combined with the fact that blows are administered by mostly male school officials who are supposed to set an example, lead to an atmosphere of humiliation” (Human Rights Watch, 2008). This therefore exposes the fact that there indeed exists a gender association with the administration of corporal punishment leading to the potential introduction of sexually motivated factors especially when the students involved are female. Many aspects also arise regarding the instruments being used to administer the punishment in places where this is done. “For instance, one teacher in a Missipi high school stated that his ‘principal uses a paddle with a flat head and a thin neck and a handle. It’s about four feet long and its made of wood” (Human Rights Watch, 2008). This therefore implies that the fundamental issues regarding the administration of corporal punishment have far and wide reaching effects especially when considering the mechanics and sensitive concerns regarding its implication on the level of human rights.
The occurrence of positive behavioural approaches has significant effect focusing upon the recurring society fundamentals. Various approaches have traditionally been used in previous instances as seen in the elementary school setting. It is therefore important to note the critical role played by the institution of positive behavioural programs in the contemporary modern schooling system.
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