Pertussis is a common disease among infants. Though the disease affects infants, teenagers, and adults, it is more prevalent in infants. Typically, Pertussis is a respiratory disease characterized by coughing. It is caused by bacteria known as Bordetella Pertussis. Generally, the disease is spread through the air, which makes it rather contagious. Several researchers have recommended vaccination as a way of reducing the outbreak of the disease. Pertussis has a detrimental effect on the entire population. To start with, the disease has been reported to have caused high death rates; many infants have lost their lives due to the infection of Pertussis. Secondly, the disease weakens the sick person, which prevents them from carrying out their daily duties.
As a result, the disease may have an adverse effect on the country’s economy. Reportedly, the disease outbreak has been witnessed in the United States of America. For this reason, the government and other non-governmental organizations have come together to look for ways of curbing and mitigating Pertussis. The researchers have come with vaccination known as Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus, which is administered at an early age to prevent the victim from the infection (Arias, 2010). The outbreak of the disease is significant in the United States; for instance, more than 41,000 cases of Pertussis have been reported so far. Generally, the spread is more than the official figures since some cases have not been reported. The paper endeavors to discuss the outbreak of Pertussis disease and how it can be reduced.
There are several steps involved in conducting the outbreak investigation. To start with, the concerned body should prepare the fieldwork. This occurs when there is information about the outbreak of the disease. Generally, the information on the outbreak will alert the officers to prepare for the field. Preparation for the field involves selecting the team and putting in place the necessary equipment that will be used in the field. Secondly, the officers will confirm the actual existence of the outbreak. Thirdly, the officers will verify the diagnosis, which means they will identify if the outbreaks are caused by the Bordetella Pertussis (Feign, 2004). The fourth step involves defining the case definition, that is, the officers handling the investigation should define cases which they want to deal with, for instance, classifying affected persons. Fifthly, the officers must also identify additional cases, which will give a precise picture of what to study.
Apparently, after this step, the officers should also select a study design, that is, the number of people to be interviewed and the place of interview. The next step is to come up with a questionnaire which will be used during the interview. The officers should then devise descriptive epidemiology, which focuses on place, person, and time. The ninth step is to formulate the definition of hypotheses. The tenth step involves the conduct of the actual study in the field. Then the officers implement control and preventive measures. After all the steps have been carried out, the officers will be requested to communicate their findings.
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Generally, there are three levels of Pertussis prevention. To start with, Primary level deal with prevention of the disease before it affects an individual. It includes vaccination and counselling of individuals on what they ought to avoid. For instance young children are immunized with DTaP vaccine. Secondly, Secondary prevention level is where the Pertussis is detected and treated at a premature stage before the emergence of the symptoms. As such, mitigate the consequences of the disease spreading. For instance, the use of the dual x-ray absorptiometry in detects the disease. Thirdly, Tertiary level is where the difficulties and further damages of Pertussis in a victim is reduced, for instance and individual is advised to seek rehabilitation services
Apparently, there are prevaccination measures, that is, criteria which need to be observed before an individual is vaccinated. To start with, an individual to be vaccinated is given about 10 granules (lactose) two days before vaccination. Secondly, the individual is also given Silymarin supplement few days before vaccination, as such, protects the liver from chemical damage. Thirdly, an hour before vaccination, two packets of vitamin C should be taken. Advisedly, use a glass of water for each packet.
Generally, it would be imperative if effectiveness of screening program is evaluated. Reportedly, a research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the vaccination. The research focuses on the age of the population and the area of the residence. Worth noting was the fact that vaccine effectiveness was about 91% in the age group between 8 to 23 months. Also, vaccine effectiveness was about 78% in the age group 9 to 13 years. From the mentioned findings, we can deduce that vaccine is more effective in the youngest age as compared to the oldest age.
In conclusion, the outbreak of Pertussis has caused a lot of harm to the entire population. Generally, it affects infants, teenagers, and adults. The disease has profound health effects and may even lead to death. For this reason, the government together with non-governmental organizations have come up with preventive immunization to reduce the outbreak of the disease. Similarly, the interested institutions have also initiated screening programs to avert the outbreak of the respiratory disease. Advisedly, more measures still need to be put in place to ensure the outbreak is significantly reduced.
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