Developments in El Salvador and Guatemala since 1930 essay
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El Salvador has managed to succeed all the conquests and dictatorial kind of leadership that it has seen since its inception. The people led by Pedro de Alvarado bitterly resisted the Spanish who wanted to rule them using an iron fist. This made people go back to Guatemala since the fight was very fierce. They did go back after fighting Atlantica.
After success in their war, the Spanish people took over the government, but never regarded the people’s old ways of living, and culture. The indigenous people revolted as a result and the war broke out in the 19th century. Many people met the government and accused them of the bad way they were treated.
One such leader was Anastacio Aquino who was by then a king. His efforts never bore any fruits as they were suppressed by the former government. As such the revolt occurred, adverse effects reflected in the future of the country. Freedom movements were formed since the year 1930 to around the year 1980 to gang against the brutal rule that was used by the Spanish.
Before the country was ruled by the Spanish people, there were well laid down and elaborate way of life among the indigenous communities that existed by then. The indigenous districts were in place with well established rules and policies, which guided them as they stayed together. The states included Pipils who settled in the area for a long time. They mostly occupied the lower parts of Mexico until the independence when they returned to their hometowns.
The other groups were the Lencas, who settled down in the eastern provinces. The last group was the Chortis who dominated the northern areas. They used to be referred to as the people from the Mayan. The most spectacular facts about the Pipils were that they were the ones who started ignoring the issues of sacrifice particularly for humans. They had a culture that was admired by many people and embraced by the Maya and Aztec people. This kind of culture is predominantly available now with few communities that remained behind. The name El Salvador was given by Alvarado, it actually means a savior of a certain kind. All this happened after the Spanish attempts to conquer the area failed in the year 1524.
Pedro de Alvarado was later forced to retreat by the Pipil warriors. One year later, the district was brought under the control of the Audience of Mexico. After the conquest, Alvarado was given the post of being the governor because of the good work he had done during the war. Later on, the area was placed under the authority of Audencia.
Spain had a great control of many colonies of America. Many people were not satisfied with this fact. The masters had plans of even extending their rule to Britain and the USA. Happy moments were not far away, as signs of independence were forthcoming. They were late curtailed after the general of Guatemala sent soldiers to San Salvador to ensure the movements were not a success at any cost. The year 1821 was as the year when the country became independent from their masters.
Later Guatemala and Salvador were to differ in the issues of autonomy until there was the combination of five central states under a general who was called Manuel Jose Arce. El Salvador was ruled as an international entity in its initial stages. This was possible because of its topography, which consisted of rivers with no bridges and was crossed using fords, and the highways had a lot to be desired since they were not able to handle wheeled materials. Lords are the most individual who ruled El Salvador. This necessitated the amendment in the constitution to be changed in many ways.
Although there was an amendment in the constitution, most things remained unchanged to the scare of many. Landowners had an added advantage over the other people. It was so because they owned the large tracks of land, which made them to secure seats at the legislature. The president himself was chosen because he came from the land elite group. The president had the right to appoint his governors, whom he chose among the landowners. In the constitution many changes were made by the presidents to make sure their rule was not altered.
The main crop that was planted in the area was indigo. The crop was planted by the elite for the purposes of export. This made most of them leave to other place where land was favorable and new where there were no volcanic eruptions. Indigo was later left in favor of chemical dyes sand later coffee came to be the main crop that was dealt with. There existed military dictatorship, this was seen in early stages from Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez’s coup until he was left alone. Farabundo Marti led a serious uprising, which saw the government suppress in its initial stages. The years that followed 1930 saw governments that ruled without reforms, hence the people were oppressed, despite the early signs of democracy.
The first party to be made use of was the National Conciliation party, which was in power from 1960 to 1979 headed by Fidel Sanchez Hernandez. In the year 1979, The Revolutionary Government Junta was in charge of the country. This led to a strong opposition to the government from both the left and the right. Eventually, the war broke out because of the poorly trained soldiers of the time.
Guatemala, on the other hand, was inhabited by people who settled around 12000 BC. People were civilized during this period of pre-Columbia. The first inhabitants of the land were hunters and those who gathered. This has been confirmed because of the cities that have been unveiled. The hunters and gathers later decide to do farming. This was proved because of the pollen samples that were found and maize plantations that were done from 3500 BC. This led to small settlements in the lowlands.
The places where these settlements have been found include Tilapa and El Mesak. These places were discovered after pottery pieces had been found. Guatemala had to remain under the Spanish rule for more than 250 years. Later it received its independence after a long war that saw it being fully independent in the year 1821.
According to Bernie, after the year of independence in 1821, Guatemala was still a part of the Mexican empire that existed then. The government constituted a representative government in 1996 after the war that lasted for 36 years.
Guatemala has seen many developments and subdivisions that describe its way of growth. First, it began with the pre classic period to the classic period leading to the postclassical period. In later years, it has been discovered that the pre classic period is the period during which people lived mostly in the villages. They made use of very few houses, which were permanent as such they made use of huts for their daily livelihood.
The main party which was called the communist party was unveiled.
The party was not used as the main body for the communist bodies untill Arbenz Jacob was hoisted as the president. Prior to this communism was seen as the epic of urban settler groups. It had a significant role in the way the urban labor groups lived. They were very small in number but they did marvelous things when it came to uprisings to air their concerns and the writings they possessed, especially in the field of literature. This was true because in the year 1949 the congress only had a very small number of representatives, there were only 40. However, in later years of up to 1953, they had a very big membership of about four thousand. After the rule of Jacobo Arbenz who arose in power in 1951, there was a freedom in the areas of politics.
Democracy was allowed and this saw many ideologies being put across. This tactic made his rule very interesting as many of the people who were opposing him joined the communist movement. Largely the movement was given more power to set on stage the various ideologies they had. People stayed together unless there was the war, which was necessitated because of the unwanted rule of the Spanish.
The revolutionary movements were developed to avert the iron rule that was used by the Spanish.. Their cultures had been done away with, hence there was a need to fight in order to regain back their former glory. Property ownership was not possible unless the individual came from the elite. The president himself elected governors from the landowners and made amendments that were in his favor. For example, Alvarado came up with amendments to be able to take his position for a long time. The movements that were created acted as an eye for the people, once they thought certain parameters were not met as required a revolt ensued which in many times had no results.
Guatemala had to fight for most than 36 years to remain independent. The independence enables people to make use of their natural resources without any problems. Change is very possible because the concerned movements were known for their determination until change was evident. With the coming of power of presidents who had the common interest of the country as a whole, change was very possible.