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To date, the world has over a hundred and eighty countries. Pakistan came into being on the August of 1947. Ideally, it emerged as the first Islamic ideological state in recent times. It is very much different from other non-ideological states. Its establishment was not as a result of territorial dominion or geographical clash by a certain group of people. In view, Pakistan will cease to exist should their ideology wander off. For a fact, Pakistan is an ideological state, which came into existence due to the Islamic religion. The issue has a lot of nuance, history and complexities that are intertwined. The expansive land mass, formerly referred to as colonial India during the British rule, was divided into three separate land parts (Hasan, 15). Each of them came into being because of the fact that most of its occupants were either Islam or Hindu.
The Creation of Pakistan after Indian Independence
Historically, the Independence movement in colonial India commenced towards the end of the 19th century. It finally took off in the beginning of the 20th century, just as nationalism was swiftly sweeping Africa and Asia. Europe had gone through its share of nationalism approximately a century before. A number of crusaders, including Mohandas Gandhi, started calling for independence from the British. The activities of Gandhi, together with other brave individuals, ensured that the struggle achieved international recognition. However, India at the time was not a united country full of people with the same ideologies, especially when it came to matters dealing with religion. The soulful vast country was clearly dominated with two vitally distinct religions. It is conflict between these two religions that led to the partition of the former India into two distinct countries; Pakistan and India. Millions of Hindu faithful lived in India, just as Moslems did, though they had a somehow short history when compared to Hinduism, which can be described as one of the oldest religions worldwide.
Britain divided Colonial India in regards to population issues (Birdwood, 12). Since then and until now, India is majorly full of Hindus. On the other hand, Pakistan was and is full of Moslems. Sadly, neither of these two states is homogeneous. The partition brought suffering to a number of families as many got separated from their kin. In view, the partition brought as much suffering as it solved pertinent issues. While India is full of mostly Hindu population, it has a considerable Moslem minority population. The same can be stated about Pakistan. Notably, Pakistan started with two distinct landscapes. There was actually East and West Pakistan and India standing in the center. Principally, there was no way to connect between the two Pakistans with India in the middle. Consequently, East Pakistan evolved into Bangladesh later in 1971.
Undeniably, the sudden partition of the former British Colony into two separate and distinct countries caused a major exodus. Many Hindus caught up in Pakistan crossed the Border into India while Moslems in India went into Pakistan. According to several estimates, the mass exodus stands at over fourteen million, which ended in mass disorder and hysteria, often accompanied with sporadic hostility. Most of the chaos were faith-based that took place behind state lines. Up to recent times, there has been a violent debate between the two states regarding the border. The two countries have laid claim to some states lying on the border, for example Kashmir (Tan and Kugaisya, 112). It is heavily militarized with certain areas controlled by India, Pakistan and China. Both sides claim to possess nuclear weapons, which has only led to an escalation of an arms race between the two sovereign states.
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The breakup of Pakistan, which created Bangladesh in 1971, raised skeptical issues regarding national identity. Arguably, it led to the theory of sub-nationalities based on language, race and religion. Lots of questions have been forwarded regarding the core existence of Pakistan. Is Pakistan just another Moslem state like the rest of them? Was there really pressing need for creation of Pakistan in the first place? Was the partition a conspiracy of the Moslem League or of the British? Was its creation accidental or calculated? Can Pakistan’s creation be equated the restoration of Islamic ideology and re-alignment of its message? Should the two countries merge once again into Akhand Bharat for peace to reign in the region once more? In asking these questions, one might stumble across the term Two-Nation theory, which is the basis of the foundation of Pakistan. According to this theory, Hindus and Moslems are two distinct nations from every angle. Consequently, Muslims should have their own homeland where they can live according to the teachings of their religion.
Notably, the reality, as well as, significance of a country like Pakistan is not clearly understood by the Western nations. The Western powers view nationality based on religion as incomprehensible and alien. The Germans and French are two distinct people living in their own countries despite practicing the same religion. The French and Germans can intermarry and marry without creating a scene. On the other hand, Moslems and Hindus living in India are two distinct cultures. Instances of intermarriages between the two are rare and might cause huge controversies. Indian Muslims go through a lot when they come to contact with their fellow Hindus across the street. The Two-Nation theory aside, conflict between Moslems and Hindus had started way before even the British came to colonize India. According to some, the idea of a two nation theory stated the day the first Hindu became a Moslem. Historically, the partition of the vast landscape was put on the table more than 700 years before the Lahore Resolution.
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Despite the fact that Moslems and Hindus live have lived together in the sub-continent, there has been no sign of a working relationship or merger signs of the Moslem and Hindu societies. The two have forever maintained their distinct societal systems, with separate cultures and civilizations. Arguably, both cultures hate the other and cannot wine and dine together. Each wants to control the other and expand their religions. Pakistan, under Islam ideology, wishes to spread its religion according to their Holy Book. On the other hand, Hindus feel superior and want to control the other. Religion, as it appears, is the main hindrance to the unity of these two different civilizations. The Moslems and the Hindus are aligned to two dissimilar literature, social customs, and religions philosophies. They have never interlined or intermarry. They harbor different ideologies about life. More often than not, the hero of one civilization is the antagonist of the other. In effect, their defeats and victories overlap.
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The creation of Pakistan meant that Moslems never trusted the Hindus, who were a majority, to be generous and just towards their culture and interests (Heyworth-Dunne, 173). The Hindus were wealthier and controlled most authority. The Muslims, on the other hand, were poor and powerless (Sharma, 113). Even during the British rule, the Hindus appeared to be favored than the Moslems. Perhaps this act fuelled animosity and distrust during that time. Definitely, the severance of East Pakistan dealt a huge blow to Pakistan’s history. Nonetheless, Bangladesh did not turn into a Hindu or secular state. It remained a Moslem majority state. As it appears, the elite ruling in West Pakistan failed to comprehend the ground situation affecting East Pakistan.
A number of people played a huge role in the founding of Pakistan; Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam. It was their desire that the nation of Pakistan came to pass to save them from the humiliation they faced in India. According to Quaid, there was a difference between the Theocracy and Islamic Social democracy; Pakistan could not turn into a theocratic state where people were under the rule of only a few who would impose their own version of religion. Pakistan had to be created eventually since Islam encompassed every aspect of the lives of its faithful (Riaz, 51-2). Islam controls the religious aspect, rituals of the daily lives, morality issues, mankind duties and also the salvation of the human soul. Arguably, the Quran acted as a constitution in many ways.
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In essence, Pakistan was founded based on the precepts of Islam. From the start, it was supposed to be a nation governed according to Islamic order for the amelioration of Moslems that were socially and economically trumped upon in Colonial India. Arguably, it was not meant to impose of save the Islamic religion. According to leaders like Quaid, the nation had to follow Islam in tandem with contemporary, technological and scientific age. It was an Islamic state that emancipated all the masses besides ushering them to the vistas of the fruitful, modern advancement that its people could use. When Pakistan was founded, it became the fifth largest nation worldwide, as well as the largest Moslem state. Ideally, the country was perfect for the clergy who, together with a few enthusiastic politicians, set out to establish their love for Islam. They commenced on instituting Islam as the pillar or fortress of Islamic religion. Apparently, Pakistan, despite all the hardships it encountered from the beginning, set out to provide its citizens with everything they had wanted from religion to economic empowerment. This is not to say that they do not currently experience their own share of hurdles.
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