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How does the JIT management philosophy differ from traditional manufacturing philosophies that manufacturing firms practice in this country? What potential problems might be associated with its adoption in, for example, a shoe-manufacturing plant in Syracuse, New York?

The outline in Just in Time (JIT) manufacturing system is frequently in the form of product focal point and manufacturing cells. The flow in a JIT structure is in two ways; material hauled forward, but data flows backward to offer response on material needs, which is different from traditional manufacturing. Conversely, transforming a business from a conventional stocking business to one that applies Just in Time philosophy usually entails high cost. Moreover, the process of refurbishing the business to maintain the new production philosophy might at times overshadow the profits of using this system (Scribd.com, n.d).

Briefly describe what the term lean manufacturing means. Select one industry. Give examples of how it can make itself leaner and subsequently more competitive.

Lean manufacturing is a mixture of the paramount methods of bulk and craft production. Those methods entail the capability to offer a customer with diverse products, at the lowest cost, at the right time and place, and the best worth (Mcleod, 2009). ExxonMobil is the world's largest freely traded global oil and Gas Company in the United States, offering energy that helps support growing economies and enhances living standards all over the world. It can apply lean manufacturing by producing several energy products at cheap prices, and making them cleaner.

Provide a description of a personal-service robot that sets this type of robot. What uses might you project for personal robots in the near future?

Personal service robot can aid human in diverse daily circumstances as we are facing the aging society. Potential assignments of such robots are cleaning a room, bringing a user-specific object closer to the user in the bed, social relations and mobile assistance. The user responsiveness is one of the significant features of such robots. In the future, these personal service robots can perform more specific and critical roles such as cooking (Miura. et al, 2003).

Provide a general definition of the term technology transfer. Give several contemporary example of this concept.

Technology transfer typically engages some source of technology cluster, which has specific technological skills and conveys the technology to a target group of receivers. These receptors do not have those specific technological skills, and thus cannot generate the tool themselves. The main kinds of commercialization and technology transfer entail the transfer of procedures for executing technology, process development, skills and knowledge that offer the basis for technology and technology codified and personified in concrete objects (Carayannis & Alexander, 2001).

What strategies and procedures are using to prevent or deter the process of reverse engineering?

One of the major policy options that U.S. manufacturers of high tech products apply for averting reverse engineering is forcing the innovator to reveal particular information concerning its product. For instance, if reverse engineering cannot successfully determine the squabbles favoring open edges, then making interfaces public might make sense for a moment (Samuelson & Scotchmer, 2001).

Explain the difference between foreign direct investment and licensing, as they are currently used to transfer technology from one country to another or from the public sector to the private sector. Provide contemporary example of each transfer channel.

Foreign direct investment is a situation when a firm from one nation makes a physical venture into constructing a factory in a different nation.  The direct investment in machines, tools and buildings is different with making an assortment investment, deemed an indirect investment. On the other hand, licensing accords permit firms to take complete advantage of new and thrilling technologies while restricting their general risk to royalty payments until an exacting technology completely develops.  This renders the company set to put new products into the production pipeline. The usual example of licensing is in the furniture industry (Graham & Spaulding, 2004).

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