The book, “ethics in America” is one of the books in the world that have tried to explore into the ethical issues that concern academic and the working fields as that of medicine, law, scientific research, business and the military concepts (Newton, 1989). It also involves the conflicts that surround these disciplines of work such that there will be harmony and contemporary ethos that will oversee the behavior and the conduct of the workers and the management of these institutions. It resolves on the analysis of the basic ethical issues, using a range of unique and contemporary cases to provide a solid foundation in the main concepts, languages and the traditions of ethics. Ethics in this case has been taken to mean the philosophical study of morality that stems from the moral codes and traditions that are the custodians of morals in the society. There are various disciplines in life that pertains to the conduct and the nature of the behavior that is portrayed by man, either in the work place or even at home and in the absence of everybody.
Moral ethics refer to the right and the universally acceptable code of living that is contained in the historical books and traditions in various societies. They apply to all spheres of life, whether civil or religious. In this book, there is a wide and deep understanding and exploration of the sources of ethics that are at disposal to the life and the living of every human being. First and foremost, there is the idea of how we talk about talking, in that there is need to have an ethical representation in the way people talk about things. This is the ultimate reason for any failures in the ethical levels in any human setting. There are the acceptable ways of talking, constructing sentences that we are suppose to let others embrace, and the way human beings are suppose to argue and even rightfully disagree with others (Newton, 1989).
There is the issue of the moral judgments and moral justice. There are many fights in the lives of human beings mainly because of the lack of the agreed upon system of settling disputes. Moral justice refer to the idea where there will be an agreed upon criteria over which man can settle issues in order to have the conflicting parties share of the sorrow and the glee. There exist various disciplines in life with various human beings in them. These disciplines happen to have their own right ways of doing things, however, these ways may infringe on the rights of others in other different fields (Newton, 2003). There is therefore a need to have moral judgments that will justify the two conflicting sides to a common agreement. A clear and precise method is necessary to eradicate any contradiction that may result from the contributions of different fields of discipline. These are referred to as the formal statements, and they work by comparing all the cases that are there before coming up with a universal and agreed upon solution that is morally acceptable. There is also the case of the judgement of the conduct by the nature that it is true or false using what is know as a fact or contained in the value judgement in the brain (Newton, 1989). It is clear to tell of such actions as they are clearly conforming, or failure to conform to the desired forms of lifestyles. Moreover, there are decisions based on the experimental touch or the practical test, which can also be used to ascertain a particular issue as concerns the right and moral way of doing things.
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Ethics are the building blocks of any setting in the human society. There are various concepts that concern the nature of ethics that are exemplified in the book. First, it talks of ethics being intelligible. In this case, the term ethics has been in the society as many proponents have been on the call for adherence to the acceptable code of conduct in every human living. Ethics is therefore understandable and meaningful. It clearly describes the desired law, concepts and also the consequences, and as to disobedience of a particular norm in every discipline under study. It is upon the democratic right of an individual to come to the realization of the fact that everybody has the obligation to speak and act and also to make conclusions basing on the right political and ethical points of view (Newton, 1989). There is also the right to express a particular opinion without the refusal of anyone as it is a democratic and an ethical right. It is only the nature and the mode of agreement that has to be in existence between the receiver and the sender of the message. It is upon the innate dignity of an individual to weigh and claim to the right perspective as people come from a variance of culture with many things considered right while others doomed wrong. It therefore calls for the heart of acceptance. The difference in the origin or the backgrounds will also act to be a source of conflicts when it comes to the field of ethics. There is furthermore the need to have a good disagreement between the conflicting issues in life (Newton, 1989).
It is the moral concern of every individual to realize and know that ethics concerns the living and the working of all human beings. Man cannot live in any society without the guidance of a particular law that states the do`s and the don’ts of the society. It is therefore a moral nature to be embraced by man in each and every life. The various disciplines human beings find themselves in are not animal-made but are specifically made for the workability and for conveniences in the daily human interactions. Ethics therefore plays a specific role of guiding and ruling the deeds of man so that they don’t give an individual an opportunity to take the nature of an animal superseding the human nature (Newton, 2003).
Ethics is also considered serious. The study of the right and wrong criteria is of significance in the living together of various human beings. There is no need for ethical egoism as it is one way in which man separates from the natural nature of living with one another. In conclusion, it is upon the set culture of various societies to embrace the universality in the respect for and preservation of the desired social ethos. Various disciplines are therefore called upon to adhere to the set customs and traditions as they are the major building blocks for unity and togetherness besides work etiquette in every human setting.
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