Long Non-coding RNAs are considered to be non-protein coding transcripts which are longer than two hundred nucleotides. These long non-coding are known to include both long IncRNA and Long ncRNAs. In Lima-De-Faria’s “Molecular Geometry of Body Pattern in Birds”, the author discusses how the unexpected patterns which are displayed by the birds’ bodies are seen as bizarre events that have demanded little attention or even described only as being amazing curiosities. It is through the book that readers can see how none of the features appear to be fortuitous. It is such features that appear to be part of an integral coherent geometry and rigid order that is directed by molecular cascades and simple gene interactions which occur at different times and at various cellular levels during the development of an organism.
A professor of Molecular Ctyogenetics at the University of Land, the author’s book deals with the organization of molecules of chromosomes, together with its meaning for the understanding of mechanisms which are responsible for all biological evolutions. Any reader who reads the book will definitely not see the birds in the same way they are seen. It also after reading the book can readers can be able to become aware of a total of five hundred and seventy one (571) non-coding RNA genes which belong to over twenty gene families that were identified in the genome of chickens (Lima-De-Faria 2012).
A recent study conducted found that only 1/5 (one fifth) of transcription that occurred across the human genome was known to be associated with Protein coding genes. This was a clear indicator that indeed, at least there was 4 times more long none coding genes as opposed to coding sequences of RNA. Even though, it was large scale DNA that was complementary in nature in sequencing projects like for instance the Functional Annotation of Mammalian cDNA (FANTOM) that was known to reveal or expose the complexity of such transcriptions. It is also through the FANTOM project that non –coding transcripts totaling 35,000were identified from 10000 distinct loci which bore many mRNAs signatures. While there was un-anticipation of the abundance of long ncRNAs, the same was different in non-polyadenylated and singleton transcripts (Kapranov 2007).
Many of the known ncRNAs which interact with general transcription factors like for instance Alu, &SK, B2 and B1 RNA’s or the RNAP II in itself are normally transcribed by the RNAP III and therefore uncoupling the expression of such ncRNAs from the reaction of RNAP II which they regulate. In addition, the RNAP II is also known to transcribe various additional ncRNAs novels like for instance the BC200, BC2 and some snoRNAs and microRNAs. ncRNAs, in addition to regulation of transcription are also tasked with the control of several aspects of mRNA post-transcriptional processing. These functions normally include base pairing (complementary) with the targeted mRNA. Key elements in the mRNA which are needed to bind transacting factors through the formation of duplexes in RNA between complementary mRNA and ncRNA thus affecting any possible steps in expression towards the post transcriptional gene splicing, degradation, translation and processing (Pagano, et al, (2007).
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Through Knight Celia et al’s book “The Moss Psycomitrella Patens” readers get to know how the Psycomitrella patens have rapidly an experimental model choice for many molecular, developmental and cell aspects of Biology in plant sciences. Various new labels have accrued from various new labels like for instance from green yeast to Caenorhabditis, Drosophila or some other plant sciences. This publication is an essential reading for any individual studying genomics, biology, cell biology, molecular and genetics. From those using patens such as the “P. patens” as a marker against any other species for ecological or evolutionary studies to those which investigate the unique features of the “P. patens” like for instance the genes which target those people using moss as a comparator in comparing other organisms, these book can be well used for investigating standard biological processes (Knight, et al, (2009).
In Erdmann’s “Non-Coding RNAs in Plants”, it can be ascertained how each of the RNA’s silencing pathways in plants have seemed to generate ncRNAs having specialized biological activities, specific functional scopes and dedicated functions. It is also through the author’s book that it can be ascertained how RNA silencing is responsible for playing a vital role in the coordination of the stability, expression, inheritance and protection of eukaryotic genomes. It includes several mechanisms which depend invariably on the main small non-coding RNAs and which achieve functions that are sequence specific and dedicated in nature. RNA silencing has been realized to perform critical stress response bodyguard functions and developmental functions which coordinate the protection, expression, inheritance and stability of all virtually eukaryotic genomes. The ncRNAs thus encompass a large set of mechanisms which achieve specialized roles or functions (Erdmann, 2011).
As opposed to Prokaryotes, the identification of genes in eukaryotes is complicated further since most chromosal DNA known so far is non-coding. For instance, it has been estimated that less than two per cent (2%) of human nuclear for DNA comprises of approximately twenty five thousand (25,000) genes which form the human genomes. This number, at first sight, seems to be too low in underpinning the genetic blueprint for organisms which are sophisticated like for example vertebrates. It is however clear that due to post transcriptional processing, the amount of messenger RNA or mRNA transcripts exceeds vastly the actual or real number of genes. A relatively small amount of genes seem to be able of producing various different mRNA sequences or transcripts via various mechanisms like for instance polyadenylation, splicing and alternative promoter usage ( Walker, et al 2009).
The virus like bacteriophage known as the PhiX174 became the first genome sequence that was to be finished or completed and it was reported by Sanger and his colleagues in 1977. This genome sequence comprised of about 5375 nucleotides together with 11 genes having no intronic or intergenic sequences. The publication of this sequence (the PhiX174) predated the full sequence’s publication of the human genome by some twenty five years. This major discovery by Sanger and colleagues about the chain termination sequencing method of DNA made it possible for the nucleotide base order to be accessed or read in DNA’s comparatively long stretches. This formed the basis for the modern or current sequencing in DNA which resulted in the development of high throughput protocols that eventually made it possible for the completion of the human draft genome sequence in 2001 (Tibayrenc, 2010).