Midterm Essay Examination


Neurons are nerve cells that are in relation to neuroglial cells comprise nerve tissues that make up the nerve system. As a result, the neuron is a vital organ in the bodies of both animals and human beings. The neuron is functional due to the various organs which comprise of a nerve cell body (soma), an elongated projection (axon), and short branching fibers (dendrites).

As the neuron functions, there are various processes in which it conveys information into the nervous system in the form of electrical pulses. The functioning of the neuron begins with the dendrites which receive information from other neurons and thereafter transmit electrical stimulations to the soma. Considerably, the treelike extensions at the beginning of the neuron help increase the surface area of the cell body.

Successively, the soma receives signals from the dendrites and plays an active role in maintaining the cell while keeping the neuron functional. Mitochondrion is a support structure that provides energy to the cell, while the Golgi apparatus packages product created by the cell. Another essential organ is the axon hillock which controls the firing of the neuron down into the axon. Finally, the axon terminal is a specialized structure which releases neurotransmitter chemicals and communicates with target neurons.

Neuron firing is responsible for behavior as the firing pattern of the neuron constituted by two different modes of firing. Single-spike firing is considerably a relatively regular, low frequency firing pattern whereas burst firing is a transient high-frequency discharge characterized by multiple actions. Neuron firing takes place through the transient changes of impulse activities that mainly occur in an individual. As well, the impulse activities occur in relation to basic attention and motivational processes in response to the reward-predicting stimuli that later on serve to initiate goal-oriented behavior.

Musical Aptitude Test

Music aptitude tests intend to measure the potential a student may hold in order to succeed in music. I will ensure that the standardization of the tests such that anybody who attempts it can understand. Aptitude tests are in such a way that their designs provide more practical and usable information. In carrying out the musical aptitude test, I will ensure that there exists a relationship between test performance and careers. Successively, the results of the standardized aptitude test will ensure that the students who meet the standards set for an individual can pursue a career in music.

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Validity is the level of accuracy of the test such that it becomes useful for the purpose it intends to give. I would ensure the use of an instrumental test where the test will focus on testing the individual’s knowledge in music. On the other hand, to enhance the reliability of the aptitude test, I will ensure that there are consistency results. I will ensure that the test items will relate to each other. In addition, I will ensure that results from the administration of one test relate to results from another administration of the test to develop reliability.

Furthermore, there are other factors that I am going to consider when deciding the test that should be used. Thus, the test should be easier to administer and correct, directions of the musical aptitude test should be understandable, the time required for administering the test, and finally, the logic of test layout. In general, this will make the test valid and reliable.

Significantly, it might be difficult to generate a valid music aptitude test rather than a reliable one. It is necessary to understand that the problem of validity arises when the musical aptitude test is not for the intended purpose. In addition, the test should include various aptitude tests since it would not be valid in the selection of a candidate if they take one test.

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Personality Trait

Personality trait is a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in a certain way thus mainly focuses on the differences in individual. It is a combination and interaction of various traits that form a personality that makes an individual unique. An example of a personality trait that is usually genetically influenced is extraversion.

Extraversion is mainly genetic since the trait could be remarkably similar with one identified in the family. Its characteristics mainly involve the levels of individual’s assertiveness, sociability, excitability and emotional expressiveness. Twin studies to establish if there existed a genetic component risk for identical twins exhibited similar histories of developing extraversion. Extraversion describes people’s behavior, where those who are low are quiet and reserved, whereas individuals who are high are talkative and outgoing.

On the other hand, some traits may not be hereditary influenced include introversion where individuals are shy. It could be influenced by both genetic and environment interactions. The level of individual’s shyness arises from the different levels of adaptive specialization. Freud assumed that introversion could be related with neurosis since the depression could play a considerable part in influencing shyness. Therefore, when an individual becomes depressed, they develop a temporary reduction in sociability since one becomes shy. It is subsequently essential to understand that although shyness could be genetically acquired environment play a crucial role in its occurrence, in an individual’s behavior.

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It is necessary to understand that there are traits which are purely genetic that could be inherited from close relatives. There is a possibility that this trait could be traced back into the family. Other traits genetically influenced by the environmental factors arise from interacting with other people from the community in which they live in.

Classical Conditioning

Learning influence the way someone's behavior therefore, the learning that Ray underwent is classical conditioning. It is necessary to understand that in classical conditioning, Ivan Pavlov illustrates how the sound of a bell triggers a given response by the dog after several exposures.     

Ray establishes a classical condition of learning due to the response that he develops at the presentation of the stimuli. At first sound of the toilet flushing was a conditioned stimulus which later on became a stimulus that led to the process of learning. Significantly, it exposes him to conditioned stimulus that is the sound of the toilet flushing. It is later followed by an unconditioned stimulus which is the gushing out of hot water. This triggers faster acquisition of unconditioned response when he screams as a reaction to the unconditioned stimuli that exhibits. Eventually, Rays exhibits an acquisition of control response as it occurs within a short time. Thus, when the conditioned stimulus occurs after some time it will trigger a conditioned response.

Thereafter since the uncontrolled stimulus, which is the water becoming hot, which causes Ray to obtain an uncontrolled response in which he screams due to the gushing out of hot water. Subsequently, the following day when Ray hears the conditioned stimulus which is the flushing of the toilet, he exhibits the conditioned response where he screams before hot water gushes out.

It is essential to learn that classical conditioning learning exposes one to a given conditioned stimuli, which eventually leads to an unconditioned stimuli. The unconditioned stimulus eventually leads to the response that is an unconditioned response. Considerably, this exposure to stimulus enables someone to react in a given way when they get exposure to the same stimuli.

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