History of Cloning essay
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Cloning is a biological process which involves the production of new similar populations of genetic individuals which are very identical to the original individuals which naturally occurs in organisms like insects, plants, and bacteria which in most cases reproduce asexually. The biotechnological definition of cloning is a process which is used in the creation of a process which is used in the creation of DNA fragments which in other words is called the molecular cloning, cell cloning or even organisms.
Very many people think that cloning is beneficial to the society of America because they get enough food and the childless couples are able to get children but the fact is that cloning has a negative impact to the American society. Cloning can lead to gene variations among the cloned individuals and they can also not be considered to be normal citizens because they are developed artificially and they would lead to psychological problems to the American society. Cloning is a costly experimentation and it has depleted the American society’s economy and it is very unhealthy because it can lead to diseases which are very costly to treat which could make the American society to be forced to budget for medical treatments instead of the welfare of the people.
Admittedly, many would argue that cloning is ethical and beneficial to the society in one way or the other. For example, some scientists say that cloning may help in the production of geniuses (McGee, 2000) which can help in the improving of people’s lives (Lederberg, 1966). This can be seen when the scientists tried to prove that it was absolutely possible to produce body spare parts for those who needed organ and body transplants. This may sound to be very ridiculous but scientists have tried to do cloning to human beings in the name of assisting sick humans by destroying the life of another human being. It was found out that most of the humans give a consent to have themselves used for the cloning experiments without the knowledge of the harm that they could expose to themselves.
Additionally, research seems to show that cloning can be considered to be very beneficial to our society by many scientists like for example the cloning which is done in plants and animals where with the aid of the cloning, animal farmers can be able to get an animal breeds which are high yielding and the plant farmers can be able to get to plant crops and plants which are able to adapt to the current climates like the continued droughts in most of the countries through the help of the GMOs which are the Genetically modified Organisms (Heidi, 2000).
To summarize, supporters of cloning believe that cloning can be a solution to fertility problems in humans. In this case, it was found out that in America, about 15% of the total population of the people that live in America are considered to be infertile and doctors have tried out ways and methods but they all have failed (Heidi, 2000). The main reason as why many Americans still think that cloning would benefit their society is that they think that cloning would help in the creation of a better human race with a majority of people just being curious on how the human cloning was going to offer the American community. Indeed, many might believe cloning is beneficial. However, cloning should not be legalized because it is dangerous, expensive, and unethical
Initially cloning should not be done because it could lead to gene mutations. Many people are not aware of the risks that they are exposed to when it comes to the issue of mutating genes. In animals, gene mutations could produce monstrous animals with huge growth abnormalities like the instance of the dolly sheep which was reported to have died because of severe lung disease in early 2003 and it died prematurely. The sheep doll; did not live to maturity and it died of arthritis which was a disease which was believed to have been as a result of the cloning which was done on the sheep.
For instance, the cloning of a baby cannot be guaranteed to be perfect because if the baby should be considered to be normal like any other child it means that the baby has to be given about 2o years so that we can be absolutely sure that the baby is very normal with no abnormalities like the excessive growth rate, normal body functions and has no mutations of any kind. Cloning has only been in existence since the 1950’s but initially it was done on plants and animals. It was rarely done to the humans but with the increase and the new advancement in technologies, scientists and researchers have extended the research on the human beings.
Based on this research, cloning is like gambling or even throwing a dice where the probability of the experiment failing is 0.5. This shows that even if there is the possibility of having very healthy clones, then it would still not change the fact that there is the likelihood all the other clones which would be born in the future would experience many more problems as compared to the present clones since they will be prone to many severe medical problems. The Genetically Modified Organisms can also cause dangerous effects to the heathy normal humans since excessive consumption is likely to cause gene mutations in people which has explained the cases of the increasing obesity rates and other many disease in America due to these GMOs.
In summation, if cloning represents the birth of a new generation which is much more better than the existing generation would mean that scientists and researchers are trying to prove that God’s creation was absolutely very wrong and in so doing, they have ended up creating new things which they have failed to get total control of like the creation of monstrous animals where they cannot control the growth of these animals. Cloning is like challenging God and human cloning is a transgress to nature since it is not through the natural way of producing babies through a man and a woman.
Furthermore, research shows that in the Dolly’s cloning (McFarland, 2000), there was the deaths of very many embryo’s and many of the newborns that were born died even before the success of the whole experiment were got. This shows that cloning could be fatal and could lead to emotional stress because animals and humans do have affections for their children and when a parent be it an animal or a human would suffer the loss of a dead newborn. To illustrate, is a case where in human cloning, a child can end up growing knowing that the grandmother is the mother and emotional pressures can cause the growing child to have emotional pressures which may cause the child to loose self confidence in himself when he is old enough to understand.
In addition, the parents of the clones do not have the love of their cloned children like the family couple who falls in love and brings out children into this world out of love and this love makes them to love them dearly. Cloning in this case is a vice because it undermines all the basic elements of love, the acceptance of a child as being a unique individual, and the nurturing of a family. Obviously, cloning causes unbalance in the society and mostly in the individual families since it can cause social side effects. Reproduction should not be separated from the human relationship and love.
As a result, human cloning could cause more harm than it is intended to repair because the child who has been cloned will end up losing a form of identity. This can cause psychological harm to the children because the child will be denied all the sense of individuality and also the child’s personal autonomy which is very hypothetical since it ignores all the normalcy of all the twins who are born identical. It is still very unethical to clone a child since the child cannot offer an informed consent which is against the human rights (Araujo, 2007).
Ultimately, human cloning should not be practiced and done on humans. The main reasons as to this is that it could lead to gene mutations, emotional risks and other risks which are associated In particular, science and technology cannot be a solution to all the problems that mankind , plants, and animals experience (Russell, 2005). Even if the scientists and researchers were able to clone a human, it is not guaranteed that they could be able to control what they created and they could end up damaging the human’s future by so doing.
In conclusion, human cloning should not be legalized because it is against the human rights law and the cloning of a child is very wrong because the child does not give a consent because he is not tested because he wants the test to be done to him (Araujo, 2007). Although the human cloning can help produce a new generation of geniuses, it denies the child the right to live the life of a normal child because a cloned child is very different from a normal child who has not been cloned in one way or the other. Cloned plants can also be very useful in the society since there is the production of food for the increasing production of the United States of America, but the adverse effects are very many since very many people in America today still have no idea of the dangers that they are exposed to when they consume these cloned foods. Human cloning would be considered to be very unethical and it should be discouraged by the government of the United States of America as it can lead to more gene mutations and the birth of a new generation of abnormal babies.