Design refers to the convention or the plan laid for the sake of a construction of a system or an object for example engineering drawings, architectural blue prints, sewing patterns and circuit diagrams. On the other hand, sustainability refers to maintenance of a responsibility for a long-term period which relates to the social, economic and environmental dimensions and revolves around whole idea of stewardship as well as responsible use and management of resources. Therefore, in mentioning design and sustainability, the whole concept of sustainable design arise which refers to the general philosophy of designing built environments, buildings and other related services in a way that conforms to economic, social and economical sustainability standards (Williams & John 2007, p.24). This entails doing away with various negative impacts on environments by the means of employing sensitive and skilful designs. This also requires non-renewable resources in order for the impact on the environment to be as minimal as possible and connect people to the natural environment.
Design ensures sustainability through measures for carbon footprint and assessment of life cycle for any kind of resource employed. This is an important area that design addresses in the environment since it is estimated that an average global energy use runs to about 8,400 Kj for every dollar and giving forth carbon IV oxide at the rate of 0.57 kg per dollar. Design and sustainability also have a strong linkage as far as landscape architecture is concerned. This also applies to effective energy landscaping which deals with designs and plans in the outdoors. These include different techniques of designs such as tree planting to provide shade for buildings as well as protection from wind, chipping and onsite composting to decrease the amount of hauling of green waste, use of local resources and materials, xeriscaping entailing plantation of plants that are resistant to droughts and purchase of stock from the local growers in order to do away with use of energy in transport (Birkeland 2002, p.41). Moreover, bio-diversity also applies in that parts of landscape and gardens can also be given room for wild growth.
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Graphic designs also boosts sustainability by taking into consideration how the products from graphic designs have impact on the environment for example the use of publication materials, print materials, colourful bags and packaging in their entire life cycle. This revolves around the point where they are raw materials, manufactured, transported, used and then disposed into the environment. Therefore, this translate to the use of sustainable graphic design techniques such as decreasing the number of materials to be used in the entire production process such as use of materials that can be recycled, use of VOC inks in printing and employing less intensive methods of production , transport and communication.
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