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Journal Review

Evolutionary medicine is the newly made type of medical investigation, which is concerned with making research in extraordinary areas of the human body. The following article convinces that the evolutionary medicine differs from the ordinary medicine practices, mainly because it focuses on the investigation of the development of pathological changes and progress as well as the reasons why this or that disease develops in a certain way. The article under consideration concentrates on the analysis and discussion of the spinal human fractures – osteoporosis and human evolution. Its aim is to show that human body evolution differs from that of the apes, which leads to evolving of different spinal fractures chiefly for the reason of having the different vertebral structure. The author points out the prior studies and investigation and how they contributed to the present state of the issue.

The central argument states that the vertebral structures differ greatly in humans and apes, which causes differences in the size of peak bone mass during the skeletal development and later on – in adulthood. The authors claimed that these differences have a strong influence on the strength and energy of humans and the related species. Usually, the distinctive reaction is observed in aging as far as bones lose their mass and become clearly weak causing a number of diseases and illnesses.

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“A number of characteristics of the vertebral body have been associated with fracture risk within humans including reduced bone volume fraction, increased degree of trabecular anisotropy, reduced vertebral shell thickness and variability in bone density within the vertebral body.” (Cotter et al. 2).

It is important to underline the approaches used for investigation. The core methods include the use of biomechanical analysis for examining the size, form, and shape of the vertebrae, and the second one – the internal examination of the microstructure of the bone. These two techniques are utilized to define the core features of evlution in young humans and young apes. It goes beyond doubt that the bones of young humans will be in a better state rather than the microstructure of the old people. However, the researchers strived to find the explanation of what impact historical evolution had on the musculoskeletal disorders. It would be fair to point out the importance of applying such analysis software as MATLAB. The following investigation has revealed that the strength of the body mass of the bone depends largely on the thickness of the vertebrae shell. That is why, the thicker this shell is, the more resistant the vertebra is to different pathological fractures of the spinal bone. To obtain credible and reliable results and calculate the voxel as accurate as it is possible, the researchers used different figures and numbers, especially in the investigation of the integer roughing. This helped to clearly see the differential features of the humans and apes’ vertebra bone mass. Thus, the biologists could make the conclusion that the reason of the existing divergences may probably lie in the weakness of small bones forming the backbone, which have several projections for articulation and muscle attachment.

There is also such notion as hominoids; they assist to identify the effect the evolution has on the fractures. Usually, those fractures have connection with the aging, which means that when a person grows older, there is a higher risk of experiencing vertebral fractures. However, there is a difference between the masses of bones in apes and humans. Among the humans themselves, there is no clear divergence, which can uniquely claim that women or men may suffer or be affected more by osteoporosis or spinal fractures. Some researchers have developed the theory suggesting that people are so highly sensitive to health spinal issues because of their sports inactivity and incapability. A lack of movement and walking may cause serious and considerable danger to bone strength and density. However, even if the amount of physical activity and constant stressing situation increases, it does not guarantee the same vertebra bone volume fraction. This clearr assumption could be regarded as the beginning of the medicine studies that concentrate on the research of human back and its possible problems.

The studies have proven that people in the ancient times had much more movable, active and engaging life rather than the modern humans in the developed and dominant countries. This means that people have to pay attention to their lifestyle and everyday day schedule. Moreover, there is an opinion that issues with fractions and osteoporosis depend on everyday nutrition and food people consume. It is inevitable to carefully select the products people eat every day. It is important to understand that human organism is built according to people’s lifestyle and manner of eating. Of course, less processed and junk foods will do only harm in contrast to consuming healthy and fresh products. It is not necessary to start dieting and torturing the organism; nevertheless, it is paramount to never forget about the possible effects of the unhealthy food products.

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In conclusion, the following article proves the fact that human spinal bones are much weaker than the apes’ ones. It is so due to a lot of factors and aspects – biological, social, and economic. People have changed the way they lived before; correspondingly, their body structure, both internal and external, has felt this great impact. Some investigators and biologists explain that actually the bone loss does not have that much influence on the functioning of an organism; however, it plays a major role deteriorating the human vertebra making it susceptible to vertebra fracture and osteoporosis. That is why, even if it does not harm the overall condition of a human, still it does affect other organs, which altogether may greatly influence the further human growth and development. This issue has gained a great popularity in the scientific world. Its language is precise, concise, and understandable with the usage of numerous scientific terms and notions that assist in unfolding the argument. Numerous researchers worked on the topic, which means that it has a scientific estimation.

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