Assessment of Reading essay

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Introduction

Reading assessments are utilized for numerous purposes. Comprehending the reading construct, which is an insight of development of the child’s reading ability, is significant. Reading assessments serve as feedbacks on the processes, knowledge resources and skills that stand for reading abilities. Different assessment tasks use numerous theories of reading development. For that matter, reading assessments can be categorized into: the norm-reference and criterion-reference testing; formative and summative assessment; formal and informal assessment; proficiency, placement and diagnostic assessment. There are five purposes for reading assessments. These include reading-proficiency assessment; assessment of classroom learning; assessment for learning; assessment of curricular effectiveness and finally, assessment for research (Berninger et al., 2006).

Reading-Proficiency Assessment

This assessment is significant in understanding thechild’s overall reading abilities based on certain reading constructs. This assessment is a key determinant of pupil’s preparedness for further studies. This assessment is also known as a standardized testing. Proficiency assessment stands for high-level testing, since decisions are made regarding pupil’s future educational goals and opportunities. It, therefore, implies that reading-proficiency assessment is, at times, utilized for a pupil placement for curriculum changes, policy decisions and teacher evaluations (Berninger et al., 2006).

Assessment of Classroom Learning

The assessment is also known as summative or achievement testing. It is geared towards measuring skills and knowledge gained over a given time. The year-end testing measures growth in proficiency yearly rather than the gains in reading abilities based on what has been learnt in class. Assessment of classroom learning commonly utilizes tasks that reflect the material taught in class and skills obtained in the practical field. A teacher, curriculum groups and teacher groups develop these tests. They are responsible for determining what exhibits a measure of success, and the way forward results should be released. This assessment allows teachers to assess pupil’s learning ability in various stages in any session. This is achieved through the use of techniques, such as quizzes of different types, post reading comprehension questions and end-of-unit tests (Berninger et al., 2006).

Alternative and informal assessment alternatives are fundamental for the effective assessment of learning. This can be achieved through pupil’s individual observations, progress charts, group works and group assessment tasks. These activities offer converging evidence for appropriate summative assessment at the end of each schooling year.

Assessment learning can either be criterion based or normative. Criterion-based assessment measures how well a pupil can perform on curriculum requirements and known-learning goals. Normative assessment measures how pupils compare each other in a class.  According to research, normative testing discourages every student from scoring an A, but Criterion-based testing may allow all students in an entire class to score mean grade A (Berninger et al., 2006).

Dibels (Dynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literacy Skills) assessment is an example of a formal assessment that is utilized in testing the following skills: initial sounds, phoneme segmentation, letter-naming, nonsense words and oral reading fluency. Students are given scores that place them at-risk, some-risk and low-risk. Dibels involve a progress monitoring session, which a teacher uses to test the at-risks pupils to determine their reading classification. Dibels can be useful to pupils ranging from kindergarten through sixth grade.

Comprehension assessment measures the student’s scale of comprehension about a given book she or he reads. This can only be functional at schools with books written at reading levels, ranging from kindergarten to high school. Teachers help students to identify their reading level and then read their books (Decker, 2003).

Assessment for Learning

These assessments promote, as well as support, student learning, and, hence, improve their reading abilities. In this assessment, performance and record of the outcomes is of interest, but we are interested in the issuance of immediate feedback on tasks, and teach students to participate in effective learning. This assessment connects students to their individual learning and ability to respond to indicators of poor performances, as well as spoor understanding.  All these can be achieved through ordinary classroom assessment activities to provide significant learning feedback. Moreover, the assessment may involve specific assessment for learning training to facilitate the day-to-day learning (Ford, 2006).

Additionally, the assessment for curricular effectiveness is also available for the development and reviewing of the reading curricular. This assessment involves standardized testing, summative test performance, as well as interviews with teachers and school administrators.

Below there is a chart used to assess children reading abilities.

ASSESSMENTS

READING COMPREHENSION

LEARNING COMPREHENSION

LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE

SYNTAX

SEMANTIX

DIBELS

ü   

 

ü   

ü   

ü   

Running Records

ü   

ü   

 

ü   

ü   

Reading- proficiency

ü   

 

ü   

ü   

ü   

norm-reference testing

ü   

 

ü   

ü   

 

criterion-reference testing

 

ü   

ü   

 

ü   

Any technique for assessment of a student can be helpful depending on the functionality if provides. It is always advisable to embrace multiple techniques, while carrying out L2 reading assessment practice to identify the reading abilities of various students. One of the techniques commonly utilized is the standardized L2 reading assessment. This technique captures the key aspects of component comprehension abilities of a student. The most appropriate and effective assessment practices will result into better learning. A student’s fluency and reading speed are analyzed in this assessment. Moreover, vocabulary, automaticity and rapid word recognition are extremely assessed. Assessment is a key component for instruction, since an instructor will be able to obtain feedback from students in multiple ways. William (2009) suggested several techniques that a teacher can incorporate, while executing assessment for learning. A teacher is recommended to allow sufficient time implementing and getting comfortable with the teaching innovations. Moreover, a teacher should learn to limit ideas to few classroom innovations at any single moment. Additionally, the teachers should develop action plans for implementing and evaluating changes (Decker, 2003).

A teacher should offer numerous learning options, different ways to learning, which will assist a student to take in instruction and internalize concepts and skills.

Moreover, a teacher should identify the level at which individual pupils are working their subject area. Standardized test scores can be of help in determining this information. Finally, a teacher should identify a student’s interests. Students should identify topics that are appealing to them and co-curricular activities (Decker, 2003).

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