Wars are part of a society and in most cases wars are fought to achieve a given goal. America has fought many wars and it continues to fight several wars not only internally but also across the globe. This part of the essay takes a critical analysis of one reason which lead to America Revolution so as to respond to President Johnson call for a detailed report on causes of war and their social and economic impact. The American revolution was a fundamental phenomena in the social, economic and political aspects of the country. In most situations, revolutionary actions are political and occur when the citizens of a given country overthrowing the existing government and replacing it with a new one. It should be noted that political revolutions are sometimes violent. In America, the Enlightenment ideas were one of the root causes the root cause of the Revolution. The Enlightenment was an intellectual uprising based on rationality, secularism, natural law, hope, liberty, and progress. In this regard, the citizen joined hands and responded to the political and social challanges of the times on the basis of enlightenment ideas to fight for liberty and equality
Within the aspect of enlightenment, the need for equality, freedom of speech, religious tolerance, and freedom of the press stood out as one of the main root causes of the American revolution. American colonists were not willing to give natural rights to the people, in this regard, the American people demanded for it from their oppressor, England. In the Declaration of Independence in America, Thomas Jefferson helped in writing Americans rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The American revolutionary actions came from the ideals of the enlightenment that Thomas Jefferson was known.
The Enlightenment ideas came out as a result of a several set of cultural and intellectual ideas in Europe during the 1400s and 1600s. These ideas formed the social norms that resulted in the revolution which swept through Europe in the late 1600s and 1700s. One of the most important changes in the period of the 1500s and 1600s was the Scientific Revolution. Scientific Revolution formed a good platform on which revolutionary actions were developed upon. The American scholars and philosophers tore down the flawed set of ancient societal beliefs which were maintained by the Church as well as the colonist ideas to usher in a new dawn through revolution.
The Mexican-American War
The Mexican-American War was a fierce engagement between the United States and Mexico between 1846 and 1848. The war came out as a result of unsettled conflicts between Mexico and Texas.After winning its independence from Mexico in the 1836, Texas was taken over by the United States in 1845; however, its southern and western borders were still under dispute during the Republic's lifetime.The bad blood between the America and Mexico were triggered when the American government opted to pay off the Mexican debt to American settlers if Mexico agree that U.S. by the territories of Alta California and Nuevo México from Mexico.
The U.S. government claimed that the southern borders of Texas were part of the Rio Grande while on the other hand Mexico claimed that it the southern borders of Texas are part of Nueces River which they claim is theirs.Mexican went ahead to place troops a along the disputed regions to protect it. The American ignored Mexican demands and went south to the Rio Grande so as to begin the construction of Fort Brown.The war started on April 24, 1846 when it was realized that Mexican troop captured one of the Americans close the Rio Grande. The killing of American angered American government so much.After the border disagreement and the war at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, America declared war on Mexico since it claimed that the Mexican invaded their territory and killed their own. During the period of the war, about 13,000 American soldiers were killed. However, the Mexican death is said to have been so much more.
Economic impact of war
War has both good and bad economic impacts. The wars which had been fought by the Americans have brought a lot of economic changes in both America and across the globe. This is because they have created democracy and good governance. The America has gained from the wars since it has offered the opportunity for economic growth and development.
American civil War
The Civil War was a pivotal event in America's historical background.While the Revolution of 1776-1783 gave birth to the United States, the Civil War which occurred in 1861-1865 formed the kind of America the American wanted. The war answered two main questions which were left unsettled by the revolution: whether the US was to be a separable confederation of sovereign states or an indivisible nation with a sovereign central government; and whether this America, is born of a declaration that all human kind were equal and have right to liberty, would continue to. The Civil War began due to uncompromising divergences opinion between the free and slave states. There was a great outcry for all states to abolish the slave trade. When Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1860. He was elected the United States president on a basis that he would abolish slavery out of all American territories. This argument prompted seven slave states in the South to secede and form a new nation which they called the Confederate States of America. The Lincoln government and most people refused in the northern states refused to recognize the legitimacy of the southern state secession. This is because they were afraid that secession would be a disgrace to democracy and form a lethal precedent that would finally cause fragmentation in the United States of America. The situation that caused war came when Mexico claimed that Fort Sumter in Charleston Bay was actually theirs.The Confederate army on that day opened fire on the federal garrison and forced it to lower the American flag in surrender. Lincoln assemble out the militia to repress this insurgence. Four slave states separated and joined the Confederacy. This led to civil war in America.
The importance of constitution in America government
The constitution is very important in solving several problems associated with governance.. Taking a critical examination of the foundation of federalism and constitutionalism, there are many lessons which make the Federal government under the constitution quite important. However, constitutionalism thought also came with enormous challenges on how to design a government strong enough to enforce law and order yet not strong enough to threaten liberty. Challenged with contrasting thoughts of aristocracy and democracy, the American Founders formed a republic.
The mandate and powers given by the US constitution to the federal government are few but well defined. This makes the role and the powers of the federal government to be limited and specific. This makes the federal government weak as compared to the state government. The powers that remained to the State governments are many and indefinite. This is because the powers which are reserved to all States extend to all aspects of life which relates to liberties, and properties of every individual, and the internal order, and development of the State. The activities of the federal government are most elaborate and critical in times of war and danger. It is prudent to note that, the federal powers under the constitution are mostly focused to the national defense, and the less occasionally will such powerfully support the federal supremacy over the state governments. A critical examination of Constitutional dispensation with accuracy and candor, it is found that federalism under the constitution has less power since all the powers given to it are regulated by other arms of the government. The federal powers regarding war bestowed on Congress by the articles of Confederation. This makes the federal government to be under check and balances.
Check and Balances of national government
The system of checks and balances in American’s constitutional government is the pillar of federalism. The development of checks and balances has mad the federalism under constitution a weak system of government. This is because check and balances offer solutions to the problems of how to empower the national government, yet create a protection against bad governance.
In my opinion the more powers should lie to the central government but under check and balance. This is because when states are given more powers the central government may be weak in decision making. This may render the federal government too weak to carry out crucial activities
Major Events in America between 1789 and 1861
This revolution brought about the good governance and the respect of law and order. In addition, the retrogressive cultural norms were abolished and the new progressive cultures adopted.
Struggle and attainment of independence
This struggle resulted in the the American independence which was a great move to self rule.
Abolition of slave trade
This was an eventful period which opened the new chapter of the rule of law and the need to respect all human kind as equal and have similar rights and privileges.
The creation and upholding of human rights as contained in America Dream
The struggle ensured that human rights and freedom are entrenched in the constitution. It also made the American dream attainable to many people.
The bill of rights
The bill of rights is part of what the Constitution's makers sought to protect from government abuse. The bill of rights was human natural rights. They include:
FREEDOM OF RELIGION
The right to follow one's own religion, or no religion, which is free from the government interference and compulsion
FREEDOM OF SPEECH, PRESS, PETITION & ASSEMBLY
This right product an individual to even unpopular expression. In this regard the government cannot censor anyone.
This provides the right to be free of uncalled for government indulgence into an individual personal and private life.
DUE PROCESS OF LAW
The right to be given fair treatment by the government at any time the loss of liberty or property is at stake.
EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW
The right to be accorded similar and equal treatment before the law, in spite of of social status or race
The bill of right made it possible to coin the pillars of the American dream.
Dream of abundance
The American dream aims to achieve four main aspects of human life. First one is the dream of abundance in the country for all people. In America, it is believed that everybody should have the pleasure of accessing whatever he or she need. Therefore, the society should produce more to satisfy everyone wants.
Dream of democracy of goods
The secondly dream of democracy of good. In this dream, the American believes that there should be access to any good about their choice regardless of race,gender, ethnicity, or class in the society. This dream strengthens the need of equality in the society. In addition, it enforces cohesion and unity among the people. However, some time it is difficult to achieve this particular dream due to some challenges, the fact remains that it is the American dream and everyone including the government work towards it.
Dream of freedom of choice
The human being has unlimited wants and therefore the principle of choice is quite important in decision making. The dream of choice is evident in the way American conduct their business and trade. Free trade, which is informed by the principle of choice creates economic dynamism by enhancing freedom, opportunity, and prosperity that benefits their citizen. In recent times, America has demonstrated the power of free trade principles. Free trade helps in breaking the cycle of poverty and goes a long way in enabling even the most impoverished countries to start creating their own economic prosperity. Nevertheless, despite all the facts to the contrary, the critics of free trade claim that employment opportunities created by globalization are often less sustaining than the livelihoods eliminated by it. This claim assumes that some kind of agrarian utopia formerly existed in less developed countries and towards this; their citizens may not reap the benefits of economic development. The Industrial Revolution has set a firm ground for free trade and increased opportunity to all economic levels globally. In addition, free trade has laid a stage for social and democratic progress of a magnitude that would have been impossible earlier. Although history stipulates that this current era of free trade and market globalization may well be facing challenges, solutions once again will depend on the power of innovation and technological development.
Dream of novelty
Creativity and novelty are a concept of the American dream with is enshrined in the mind of the people. Americans believe that new products broaden consumers’ purchasing power and knowledge about innovations. In this regard, the society should always create new goods and products as it is one of the American dreams. Novelty creates trade and economic development but it should be carried out in an ethical way which embraces the concept of human dignity and not consumerism. In addition, the concept of novelty propels people to social mobility and stardom which the American believes in.
The America has faced many challenges which have come out to be part of its strength and stability. The history of America is compelling and present a great foundation for many nations to emulate. For instance, the American revolution, constitution, bill of right and its democratic process makes it a role model for many nations as across the globe.