Theories in Human Sciences essay

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Scientists in the whole world tend to share many beliefs. The theories in human science are more convincing because the environment and the nature of the world support these theories. Science assumes that the events that occur in the universe occur in a consistent pattern that is comprehensible with intellectual virtues. The instruments that make sense to the people assist it, and this makes them discover patterns that exist in all natures. In science, the basic rules are all the same, and they apply everywhere. The knowledge obtained through studying apart of the universe is applicable to other parts of the universe. For instance, the principle of motion and that of gravitational force, which is applicable for falling objects on the earth surface is also applicable and may be used to explain the motion of the moon and other planets. With few modifications as the years go by the same principles, be applicable to other forces from the smallest nuclear particles to the biggest stars, light rays, bullets, and sailboats.

Science in itself is a process of producing knowledge. The whole process revolves around making careful observations on the events that are happening around and phenomena that work towards inventing theories to support these observations. Changes that occur in knowledge cannot be avoided because recent observations may challenge the prevailing observations. As much as the previous theory can be particularly relevant the newly invented theory can be more explicit and might have, more information and observations compared to the previous one. In science, the testing, improving and discarding of the old theories regardless of the fact that they are new or old go on from time to time. Many scientists accept as true that even if there is no way to achieve an absolute truth it is better to increase the accuracy of the truth through increasing approximations of accuracy.

Theories in scientific knowledge and human sciences have the perception to be durable. This is because although there is rejection of the notion of attaining absolute truth, there is the acceptability of some of the uncertainties as part of nature. Modification of ideas rather than rejection is the norm of both natural and human science. It is a powerful construct, and with time it survives more and brows to be more precise which is widely accepted. For instance, in the process of forming the theory of   relativity, Albert Einstein did not overrule Newton's law of motion but he rather showed them to approximate the limited application when considering a general concept. Newton's law is still applicable in calculating the satellite transitions. In addition, the increasing ability for the natural scientists to make accurate predictions on the upcoming events is convincing evidence that the theories that are forwarded are true. It can also help to conclude that scientists are gaining a deeper understanding on how the world works. As a characteristic of change, continuity and stability as well as confidence are the most prevalent points.

The theories in natural sciences, as well as those in human sciences, do not provide complete answers to all the questions. These theories put it that there are many matters in science that cannot be explained fully in a scientific way. There are theories that their exact nature cannot be proved or disapproved. For instance, the existence of natural powers and the true purpose of life cannot be fully defined. About half of the scientific discoveries are stumbled upon rather than sought. Psychologist Kevin says that the process amounts many scientists to fix what they think is a source of error in their methodology, after many mistakes they try to think of the conceptual source of error and tries to find explanations.

Scientists working on experiments are aiming at getting accurate data so as to act as an evidence for the observations that have been made. Measurements are taken from natural settings as well as the confined ones such as the laboratories. To make these observations, scientists normally use instruments such as microscopes, their own senses, and other instruments such as magnetic fields, which are quite different from the human sense. In some experimental settings, the scientists control the conditions deliberately so as to come up with evidence. They may control temperature, concentration of chemicals and also choose an organism for mating. Antoine Lavoisier is the founder of modern chemistry. He conducted an experiment to study the changes in the chemical states of substances. He eventually came up with the law of conservation of mass.

Natural sciences strive to create some sense in observations made. They are convincing since they give an explanation to every thing that they put forward as a theory. They are able to justify, and they have scientifically valid observations. The credibility of scientific claims is in the ability of these claims to show relationship amongst phenomenon that seems previously unrelated. For example, the theory of moving continents has  achieved incredibility with time as it has shown evidence in diverse phenomenon such as earthquakes, different volcanoes and also in the by the evidence of the march of  different fossil types, contours of the ocean floors and on the shapes of the continents.

Scientific theories demonstrate predictive power. These predictions might not necessarily need prediction or may be as a result of the predictions of the past. A theory on the origin of human beings can be tested by the new discoveries of fossils that are necessary for the reconstruction of historical events. Theories of the evolution of the stars might predict relationships that are not suspected and which can be sought through existing data collected on stars. One of the least requirements for the theory of human sciences is its ability to interrelate well with theories of natural sciences.

Theory of nursing is one of the basic scientific theories that are applicable in human sciences generally. This in regard of the way this theory connects with the human behavior at the context of illness. Nursing connects with the service of the people, which advances the knowledge of the society inhuman conditions and the welfare of the society in general. There is a problem when it comes to the use of human subjects in an experiment. This is because humans are hard to study since they are prone to selection bias. According to the central limit theorem and that of Markovs theorem of inequality, it is seen that, for any randomization project, there is a lot of variation. When there is poor randomization, there will be difficulty in separation the effects of treatment exposure. To avoid these conditions, researchers conducting medical trials such as the trials on food and drugs attempt to eliminate bias through observational studies together with propensity score matching which involves larger groups of people.

Thomas Kuhn coiled the theory of paradigm shift, used to describe the change in models or events. This theory has been applied in most of the human sciences and other relevant areas of study. According to Kuhn, paradigm can be defined as what is known by members who belong to a scientific community and the other people do not know. He believes that when a recent one replaces a scientific theory, the renewed one is always better than the old theory but not different. Kuhnian analysis has been used for a long time by the social scientists through various approaches to understand the complexity of human behavior.

The history of the economic theory has gone parallel to the development of social justice. At some point, the economists consider the wages for workers should not be more than what is just enough to sustain them. Women and people of color were not allowed to conduct scientific studies or even employment before the twentieth century. Lavoisier and Laplace it is supposed to take place in the lungs also suggested the theory of the combustion of heat, and it enables living organisms to maintain its body temperature.

Ethical principles are generally accepted in the field of human sciences. Most of the scientists conduct themselves according to the norms of ethics that are applicable in science. There are strongly held traditions that have been applicable for a long time such as openness and the replication of data is extremely beneficial, and the critical review by peer workers is the vast majority of ethical professional behavior. Modern scientific ethics stipulate that the subjects must be given health, comfort and information as well as the animal subjects. Research on human subjects can only be carried out with the full consent of the subjects. This entails disclosure of the full risks and the intended behavior. Scientists must not subject workers, students and the neighborhood to heath risks without their knowledge.

In human sciences, Louis Pasture who is regarded as the father of microbiology discovered and was able to provide sufficient proof that disease causing organisms do not spontaneously appear but they are alive and that they can only multiply in the right environment. From this discovery, he has invented vaccines for the cure of diseases and a method to reduce the amount of bacteria.

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