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Muslims have always been associated with acts of terrorism in the whole world. This is a sensitive issue in the UK and consequently brings about the issue of racial segregation. However, a clear understanding of Muslims as a religious people leads to the realization that it is not all the Muslims who engage in the acts of terrorism. The leaders of such groups take the advantage of the poor people who are uneducated who are brainwashed and indulged in the acts of terrorism. This paper attempts to collect information on the issue of a feeling of racism among the Muslims in the UK as a result of their religion affiliation. Much information has been collected from past literature that has been written on the same topic. It has also been imperative to conduct some research on the topic to come up with a clear picture on the issue of racism among the Muslims in different cities in the UK including
London, Birmingham, Manchester, Glasgow, and Cardiff. The research has been conducted on 50 people from each mosque, 150 per city, 50% male and 50% female and therefore 750 total.
On account of the involvement of the Muslims in various acts of terrorism. They should be treated as a suspicious group among the rest of the citizens
Do Muslims feel racism towards themselves due to their religion in the major cities of the UK?
This paper posits to answer the following question, "Do Muslims feel racism towards themselves due to their religion in the major cities of the UK? To arrive at a coherent answer to this question, it is important to appreciate the fact that Britain is a multicultural nation. The population of the country is above the mark of 60.6 million citizens who hail from a diversity of races, cultural backgrounds as well as religion (European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), 2003). It is vital to comprehend the rationale behind the wide diversity in Britain. The most significant factor behind the diversity is that a wide array of communities settled in this region for a considerable time period thus leaving behind some important legacies that they were associated with (Brooks, 2005).
Estimated populations of about 4.6 million which represent about 7.9% of these people are from the minority groups. According to the statistics of 2001 census, the following groups of people have resided in the UK in the past millennium; the Celts, Romans, Northern Europe settlers and the Jewish settlers. Most immigrants came from India, Bangladesh and Pakistan after the British Empire collapsed around 1960s and 1970s (Fryer, 1984). A record of political as well as religious refugees in addition to asylum seekers has also been documented who were accorded refugee status in UK. Additionally, there has been an expansion in the European Union leading to numerous Eastern Europeans entering the UK in the recent past (Davis, 1999).
The government has been involved in frantic efforts of fighting discrimination in this country. This has been achieved through the enactment of numerous laws aimed at ensuring that all people have an access to a fair as well as equal treatment. The laws which were implemented in UK in regard to the fight against discrimination have their basis on race, the gender of people, their disability status, their social orientation, age and religion (Flynn, 2003).
The organization "The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC)" which came in to being in 2007 has the responsibility of championing for the equality as well as the human rights for the entire population irrespective of their religion, their race, gender age as well as sexual orientation (Dresser, 1986).
This section spells out the procedures and methods that the researcher employed in achieving the objectives of the project so highlighted in the abstract of this paper. It defines the location of the study, research procedures and analysis plan that were addressed in the course of the study consideration when carrying out this particular research. The research was supposed to start with the clear understanding of the research objectives as well as the hypothesis. Success of the project was a factor of the provision of satisfying information in line with the objectives and hypothesis in the determination of transition to reception programs for late birthday children (Bhabha & Shutter, 1994).
The objective of the research just as a recap is to identify Muslims are treated differently by other cultures in the UK due to their religion. It is important to note here that this research was mainly based on the interviews even though other research methodologies were briefly discussed.
Primary research refers to collection of statistics that is non existent. This was considered to be achieved through numerous forms: including the use of interviews at mosque, structured interviews, open ended questionnaires. The major merit with conducting primary research is that it was accurate. However, the disadvantage of primary research was that it was time consuming, as it involved dealing with people from various regions, the human sources may only become resourceful out of their own willingness, and this took them quit sometimes before making up their minds to tell what they knew or give their side stories about your questions on transition to reception programs for late birthday children (Bush, 1999).
Secondary research on the other hand is the collection of existing data, that is, in contrast to primary research. For example: research on experiments or specific subjects. The merit of secondary research is that it's not time consuming however a disadvantage is that the information retrieved may not be relevant (Judd, 2001).
Choice of research philosophy
Another aspect that is of great significance in this research was the research strategy. It's the research strategy that indicated which methods a researcher adapted to answer the research objectives or questions on whether Muslims are treated differently by other cultures in the UK due to their religion (Fekete, 1997).
In order to achieve the purpose of the investigation, the key focus lies on finding out which techniques should be applied with regard to the achievement of. Interviews were the best method for understanding this research. "A respondent interview is a situation whereby the interviewer directs interviews and the interviewer gives response to questions of researcher".
In order to analyze the psychological and behavioral reasons for decisions of the sources, the primary data was gathered through the circulation of questionnaires. They however emphasized it is very important to note that questionnaires should reach the right people, to allow for an appropriate amount of information to be collected. Different types of interviews that the researchers opted to apply to their studies. The three are inclusive of the structured interviews, the semi-structured interviews, and unstructured interviews. Interviews were conducted at the at mosque, which included structured interviews, open ended questionnaires.
Samples were taken randomly from mosques in London, Birmingham, Manchester, Glasgow, Cardiff.
The limit considered for the sake of this research included 50 people from each mosque, 150 per city, 50% male and 50% female and therefore 750 total.
Research validity and reliability
A debate about the findings of the preceding literatures on whether the Muslims are treated differently by other cultures in the UK due to their religion includes discussion of the 'research', more often than not referring to the manner in which the statistics were collected". This research being a phenomenological, all questions are related to theoretical characteristics discussed in literature preview. The process would therefore be accurate in collecting, analyzing and sampling data; hence the validity of result would be quite high. It is important to consider the possibility of existence of a diversity of aspects of validity, which influence the validity of research in general.
Data analysis and presentation
The collected data will be analysed using the Statistical Programme for Social Scientists (SPSS)
Appropriateness of triangulation to research
The essence of applying triangulation is for the sake of indications of applicability of several methods (excess of two) in the course of the study in consideration of checking double or even triples results checking otherwise known as cross examination. The idea behind the concept is for the researcher to express a high degree of confidence in consideration of the results of diverse methods that give similar results. In case a single method was applied by the researcher, there is a higher tendency of believing that the results are valid. Application of more that one method may result in a clash of the results. The application of about three methods attempting to derive an answer may lead to a similarity of answers from two out of the three methods used. In case of an occurrence of a crash there is then a need of reframing the question (HSE, 2006).
The participants were supplied with different questionnaires based on specific areas of interests. The approval or disapproval of implementation of the program was based on its merits and demerits as determined after conducting the research. All the participants were given their respectively informed consent for participation in research. They were informed prior to research, the purposes, potential benefits and also the risks that might be associated with their participation. Ethical standards shall be considered in the process of the procedures of the research.
If the participants chose not to answer any part of the question/s, their right to not answer were acknowledged and it was ensured that the privacy of any person was not compromised upon. Two attempts were made and no further again to respect the privacy of any individual. Besides, the proposals for a general announcement of the ruling for agreeing to contribute to no other involvement incentive were offered. Whilst conducting interviews with the sources, researcher stayed cognitive of the selected interview time and made no efforts to intentionally lengthen the interview. Moreover, as an important part of the ethical considerations, all the sources of secondary data were given complete recognition for their input to this study. The composed data was characterized truthfully and the investigation was to the finest of the researcher's knowledge and capability
Limitations encountered in the findings
During the carrying out of the research several challenges were encountered which included:
- Some respondents were not willing to cooperate in the process of carrying out of the interview.
- Some questionnaires were not properly answered while others remained blank forcing the possibility of assumptions to be included here.
- There also existed the tedious and long procedures to be followed in order to obtain the entrance to the premises which were coupled by writing of letters for granting of permission.
- Some of the government officials were adamant in taking part in the study and appropriate incentives had to be devised to entice them to give the information that they had.
Despite the frantic efforts of the government to suppress racial prejudice among the muslims in the UK, the research conducted has all indication that these people are usually discriminated in the issues of housing, the provision of healthcare and other amenities. This has resulted to the need of effectively implementing the Equality act of 2006 that is supposed to offer sufficient protection to the individual against the existing discrimination based on religion as well as their beliefs. The service providers have also to be made aware about the rights that these people are entitled to. Most of the people who took part in the research cited issues of democracy, security, fairness as well as justice as the most important issues affecting their life. They also indicated that opportunities to quality education, access to vital services and improved living standards were among the other contentious issues in the government. They expressed some negative feelings concerning social behavior and discrimination.