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Decentralization and Centralization

The above terms denote the administration authority of any given organization. Centralization of authority is concentrating it in one position or department. In decentralization, authority is dispersed from two different departments. Centralization of authority slants towards power and domineering of the decision-making processes in the organization. Decentralization encourages competition and participation in the decision-making.


Principle of delegation accords a subordinate an authority to perform a duty. Organizations are run on delegation of the duties bases. Delegation deals with transfer of routine work that needs critical analysis to the lower office holder. This transfer is normally temporal in nature. The concept acts as developmental channel for subordinates, because it sharpens their skills and develops leadership caliber. (Shafritz and Ott 2011)

Advantages of Specialization of the Workforce

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The principle of job specialization is based on the “practice makes perfect' concepts. Specialization enhances efficiency in organization activities, mostly in production. Repetition of tasks sharpens workers skills.

It saves time in that, as workers develop skill pertaining certain tasks, so does their speed and efficiency. The catch here is avoiding duplication of effort, because of mistakes and towards the perfection. Furthermore, a worker does not have to move from point A to B all the time. Before the work commencement, they are already familiar with tools and equipment needed.

It promotes accuracy and uniformity in production. Every member of a workforce engages in a work in which one is conversant. In the return production, related overheads get reduced significantly. Costs of reduction come because of the lack of need in making double payment for the same job in mistake rectification.

Authority and Responsibility

Where a responsibility exiss, there is a relationship. Someone responsible has a duty to ensure an order execution in the best manner. In an organization, responsibility is the completion of   all goals set within a specified period. There can never be the efficiency, if time is saved, but higher cost has been incurred. Therefore, a reduction of cost and responsibility goes hand in hand. Responsibility and authority are intertwined. One needs authority to be able to accomplish the set goals. However, most of the time is when authority and responsibility are confused. When this occurs, we usually have tension and conflicts. Responsibilities are derived from the accountability and obligations over specified happenings. Authority awakens the power to command the obedience from those subjected to it.

Application of Organization Theory to IOP (intensive outpatient program)

To put an end to the long queues in the centre, doctors should practice, as they do practice the principle of delegation. Drug prescription is a doctor’s responsibility, but its administration, unless in special circumstances, and nurses administer the medication. Delegation impact skills the subordinates’ skills that come in handy in the event the doctor is not available in an emergency case.

Authority and Responsibility in Action

It is the administration's responsibility to see that the outpatients get attended, and a close follow-up is enhanced. Doctors are responsible for giving the quality healthcare and health information to patients and all the stakeholders, which in this case include the family members. The Code of Medicine mandates the practice of the same to be integrated with a lot of sense of responsibility and caution.

Job Specialization

Job specialization culminates to departmentalization. Functional departmentalization is a classification of subunits of an organization, according to the jobs each subunit executes. (Ricky 2012).

For IOP programs, centralizedd decision-making structure is recommended, given the nature of the organization activities. Decision on how to treat a patient should be determined by one central individual, thus ensuring the consistency and uniformity. The difference here is that before a decision is arrived at, a series of consultations are highly recommended.

Advantages to the Workforce (Employees)

Specialization proves to be beneficial to the workers, because it improves the employment potential. Employment opportunities are higher to a specialized worker, than to somebody who can not be identified with any job skill. That is why education is paramount: it provides the specialized training to individuals.

Job security is another job specialization advantage to the workforce. Worker who possesses exceptional skills stands out, and the firm may find him irreplaceable. (Ricky 2012).

Renowned sociologist identifies the division of labor with solidarity. Specialization brings more than financial efficiency. Specialization creates a mutual feeling within a group of people. People share a common ground when there is a common role joining them. This comes in the form of unions and regulatory bodies.

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The division of labor makes work so effortless that an employee can be interchanged without any negative effects on production.

Demerits to the Workforce

Workers are expected to possess the specialized skills and act as hindrances to their career enhancement. Securing employment somewhere else proves daunting task.

According to Uris (1968), specialization creates some sense of monopoly in any given organization. If a skilled worker fails to show up for work that day, his line of production will stand still.

If there is no similar industry with such services and production, then these specialized skills become irrelevant. Division of labor in any organization limits freedom of anonymity option.

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