Mainstream Theorists

The mainstream theory is based on the assumption that the unit of an international system is unitary. Therefore, it excludes the actors and factors of domestic politics from international relation. This assumption gets critiqued by many scholars, for example, Helen V. Milner.

During the President Bush administration, he suffered from classical shortcoming of realism, which was a failure to imagination (Krauthammer, 2005). He engaged himself in management of reconstitution of Germany, and restored independence in East Europe, but he did not pay much attention in liberation of the Soviet people. Still his success outweighed the failures. During his reign, Bush captured Saddam, and by bringing him to face justice saved the freedom of the Iraq nation. After that, he ensured that there was peace in the post soviet territories. To some extent the American government was criticized for being reluctant in addressing some issues. After the reelection of the president Bush, he continued to employ the same strategy to promote democracy. He even intervened in Afghanistan and Iraq elections to ensure free and fair elections. His main objective was to ensure that democracy prevailed in these countries (Krauthammer, 2005). The other objective was to ensure that terrorism threat, the country was facing, was reduced. Based on this strategy the American government itself is self-ended since it ruined the sovereignty of these two countries, but it maintained its security at home by reducing terrorism (Wah, 2006).

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According to Kanga (2002), the Americans and the Europeans do not share a common goal in views on peace in the world. Their main objective in the world is to acquire power. They disagree and misunderstand each other. Currently the USA is gaining power, while Europe is turning away from its. The two countries promote international relation, but they apply different method in tackling international issue. For example, the Americans see the world divided between good and evil that is between friends and enemies, while Europeans view it in a more complex manner (Piazza, 2008).

The Europeans approach their problems in a more complicated and sophisticated way, than the Americans do; the last are quick in dealing with their issues. The Europeans peacefully approach their issues, and prefer negotiation and diplomacy in solving their problems. During the President Clinton administration, the United States of America bombed Iraq, Sudan, and Afghanistan. According to European countries, this was not an appropriate strategy to reduce terrorism; instead it increased tension in the American society (Wah, 2006).

Critical Theorists

Noam and Selfa are widely known to be critics of the foreign policy of the United States of America and other governments. Noam Chomsky (2006) argues that the major sources of international terrorism are the world strongest nations, such as the United States of America and Europe. He defines terrorism by using U.S. army, which is intimidating the human rights, and instilling fear in people of those weak nations. He refers to the developing countries as the weak states (Diamond, 2002).

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He argues that the United States of America does not have a democratic structure. He promotes the argument by showing that most of the elections, held in America, receive heavy funding from private sectors. Chomsky (2006) also claims that American government uses the Cold War policies to preserve its ideological and economic dominance in the world. Chomsky (2006) states that the American government abuses power, and assaults democracy in developing countries. For example, he states that the objective of the USA to invade the Middle East was not to promote democracy. He argues that the U.S. invaded the Middle East for other purposes, such as to maintain its superiority globally, and have power over the world oil prices. He even states that, if the Middle East was situated in central Africa, and was not the biggest oil producer, the American nation would not have invaded it (Wah, 2006).

During the President Bush administration, the government was selective in determining which country it would invade to promote democracy. For example, before there were elections in Iraq, the USA government had opposed the idea. During the election, there was no democracy, since the country was under mass pressure. For example, there were troops and security checkpoints everywhere during the elections. Most of the Iraq citizens did not have knowledge about their candidates, whom they were voting for. Some of the candidates were not even qualified. Even after elections the U.S. government is still reluctant to move from Iraq, and such conditions have continued over the past few years, it has established bases in every part of the country. (Selfa, 2005)

According to Selfa (2005), the main objective of the Americans is not to bring democracy, and to ensure protection of people. Instead, the USA has other vital interests in the countries that it invades. In the world economy, oil is a vital product. The U.S. demands oil so as to run its economy, and maintain its world dominant power. This explains the main interest of the U.S. in the Middle East. The Middle East is the biggest oil producer in the world. Therefore, when American government intervenes in the governance of the Middle East countries, it will have a significant influence in prices of oil (Diamond, 2002).


Based on the evidenced gathered from other researches on foreign policy, my opinion about the American foreign policies is that their policies are for selfish and unjustified ends.

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It was noticed that the United States of America as a country values international security. It values its citizens’ interest, and that of other countries citizens. It promotes democracy in other countries during wars and different crisis. For example, The U.S. government ensured that there was peaceful election in Afghanistan in 2005. In 2001, it removed the Taliban government and its allies in Afghanistan. As a result, America got the ability to defeat terrorism, and meet security challenges that it had been facing in the early 2000. The parliamentary elections done in Afghanistan promoted hope to the people of the country. They were able to focus on future prosperity of the country in politics and economic growth. Promoting democracy in other countries benefits the U.S., and the countries involved. Therefore, by employing foreign policy the U.S. government ensures that democracy prevails in other countries. The American government supports the rights of women and girls, in order to maintain gender equality. Therefore, women and girls are able to access the same rights and opportunities as the men do. The U.S. government works with other regional and international organizations to prevent violence against women and girls worldwide. It also invites other countries to ensure that there is peace in the world. Therefore, for a country to ensure there is proper governance, it should eradicate terrorism, and promote democracy. (Piazza, 2008)

On the other hand, the American government bases itself on selfish ends. I tend to agree with Chomsky about the American government main interest in the Middle East. He claims that the American government uses the Cold War policies to preserve its ideological and economic dominance in the world. Chomsky (2006) states that the American government abuses power, and assaults democracy in developing countries. He claims that the U.S. invaded the Middle East for other purposes, such as to maintain its superiority in the world, and have control over the world oil prices. 

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