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Non-Infectious Disease “Lung Cancer”

1.    What Are the Presenting Symptoms of This Lung Cancer Disease?

  1. Loss of appetite accompanied with loss of weigh.
  2. Constant pain in the chest area, usually, the pain is dull, aching, and persistent.
  3. Coughing up blood or rusty-colored phlegm technically known as hemoptysis.
  4. Repeated respiratory infections such as pneumonia or sometimes bronchitis
  5. Swelling of the neck and face is another key symptom.
  6. Hoarseness or wheezing of voice, which is a probable indication of a blockage or inflammation in the lungs.
  7. Fatigue.
  8. Frequent coughing that may get worse with time.
  9. Shortness of breath consequently because of blockage in part of the lung, collection of fluid around the lung technically known as pleural effusion or because of the spread of tumor through the lungs.

2.    Is This Disease Chronic or Acute?

Argiris (2012) confirms that lung cancer is a chronic disease. It qualifies to be called one, because usually, chronic diseases are persistent and normally last for a long period and could recur. Just like other chronic diseases, lung cancer develops over time and, therefore, does not strike a person all over sudden.


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3.    Is It Lethal or Non-Lethal Cause?

It is lethal cause. Patients of lung cancer have minimal chances of survival, especially if not treated at its infancy. The Mesothelioma Center  (2013) opines that there has been an increase of about 8% deaths of lung cancer patients since 2009.

4.    What Is the Infectious Agent?

The infectious agent is Chlamydophila pneumonia.

5.   Is This Agent Viral or Bacterial?

The agent is bacterial.

6.   Describe the Agent in Detail.

Chlamydophilapneumonia is described as an intracellular bacterium that embraces an uncommon biphasic life cycle. Kenny (2012) asserts that the organism is constituted of an inactive and infectious form that is commonly small in nature. A rigid cell wall that emanates from the action of proteins characterizes the elementary body; therefore, boosting its survival outside its host cell. After the receptor-mediated endocytosis infects the eukaryotic cell of a potential host, the elementary bodies then differentiate significantly into more reticulate bodies that make up the larger part of the organism’s metabolic and active body.

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7.   How Does the Infectious Agent Interact with the Body?

These bacteria destroy the DNA of the person once they get into the body and altering the normal functioning of the cell as well as the cell proliferation. Additionally, they alter apoptosis and impair the process of DNA repair. This has an overall weakening effect on the patient consequently leading to continued weakening of the individual.

8.   Does Damaged or Destroyed Cell Cause the Symptoms?

The DNA cell is damaged causing the symptoms to be felt or seen.

9.   What Part of the Body Does This Disease Affect?

It affects the lungs.

10.  Are They Cells or Tissues?

They are DNA cells.

11.  How Is This Disease Transmitted from Host to Host?

The possibility of the transmission of the cancer of the lungs from host to host is extremely high among smokers with first-degree relatives with a history of the cancer of the lung. It is also worth noting that the risk of lung cancer transmission is extremely high among women compared to men.

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12.  Is There a Preventative Method?

There is a preventative method. The cessation of smoking is a crucial way of preventing hereditary infection of lung cancer among all individuals around the globe.

13.  Is There a Vector (Carrier) Involved?

Genes are the main carriers/ vectors lung cancer bacteria.

14.  When Did This Disease First Emerge?

This disease emerged in 1761.

15.  Is It Found More in Specific Parts of the World?

Yes. Lung cancer is found more in the United States of America and Canada where it is considered as the leading killer disease. Most developed countries are more susceptible to possible infection by lung cancer.

16.  Is There an Ethnicity/Race Gender that Is at Greater Risk or that This Disease Is Primarily Found In?

Blacks who have first-degree relatives are more vulnerable to lung cancer than whites. Even though all people all over the world are vulnerable to lung cancer, women are more prone to infection of lung cancer compared to men.   

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17.  How Is This Disease Treated?

According to Kulbida (2012), the treatment of the cancer of the lungs may involve the use of radiation therapy that entails the utilization of x-rays. Additionally, it may entail chemotherapy that involves the use of chemicals, the removal of the tumor through surgery, or preferably, doctors may decide to combine these different types of treatments depending on the nature of the lung cancer that one is suffering from. Some of the important points taken into account when choosing the methods of treatment include the location of the tumor, the extent of the tumor, and the overall health of the person to accord significant treatment strategies. One of the key aims of the treatment is to cure the cancer completely and the other aim is to alleviate the pain that individuals undergo using appropriate procedures and processes. Adjuvant therapy is a kind of therapy that is added with the aim of enhancing the effectiveness of the initial treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Accordingly, this can be applied after a tumor has been successfully removed through surgery to facilitate the destruction of other tumor cells. The surgical treatment of the cancer of the lungs is normally conducted on individuals bearing either Stage 1 or Stage 2 NSCLC to eliminate the tumor.  Roth, Cox, & Hong (2011) confirm that about 25% of lung cancers may be removed through surgical means. It is vital to note that the elimination of a tumor using surgical means does not necessarily cure cancerous conditions due to the high rate at which tumors are spread. This implies that the tumor can recur sometimes in the future. The surgery of the tumor may not be a choice in cases where the tumor appears too close the patient’s trachea.

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Surgical operations are not frequently performed on patients suffering from SCLC, because of the fact that the tumors in place are less likely to be concentrated in one area. Accordingly, radiation therapy is considered as an effective treatment mechanism of NSCLC and SCLC. The high-energy X-rays and other significant forms of radiation may be utilized to treat this type of cancer as it kills the cancerous cells in the most possible effective manner. Normally, there is external delivery of radiation to the patient via a process that entails the placement a number of containers that are sealed. These containers have radioactive elements that assist in the identification and the location of the tumor. Another form of radiotherapy used in the treatment is brachytherapy. This refers to a kind of radiotherapy that entails the placement of small elements of radioactive of radioactive material directly into infected area. It may also be placed near the affected area using a significant device named the bronchoscope. In most instances, External Radiation Therapy (ERT) can be conducted on individuals on the outpatient criterion. A type of radiotherapy commonly known as gamma knife entails the concentration of radiation beams on the head of the patient for some considerable minutes, and this could even take several hours to successfully conduct. A rigid frame is usually used to hold the head of the patient during this entire procedure. Accordingly, ERT is commonly conducted four or five times a week several weeks or so.

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Radiation therapy bears notable side effects such as the decline in the level of white blood cells thus exposing individuals to other infections. More so, it leads to the decline in the level of blood platelet hence affecting the process of blood clotting. Individuals getting treatments of their organs through radiotherapy are also susceptible to experiencing undesirable conditions such as vomiting and nausea. The use of radiotherapy may also irritate the skin of the patient, but it will adjust and improve with time after the completion of the treatment process. Alternatively, another form of treatment could still be preferred to treat a lung cancer patient. Chemotherapy can be effectively applied in the treatment of NSCLC and SCLC. This is the process of administering medications that are designed to kill the cancerous cells and stop their further growth. The specific treatment that stands out is the use of platinum-based chemotherapy drugs, because of their effectiveness in curing the cancer of the lungs. Chemotherapy is always opted for the treatment of individuals suffering from SCLC, because of the nature in which its tumors tend to spread throughout the body of the victim. About half of the patients suffering from SCLC can survive for a period of four months without accessing chemotherapy.

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Stewart (2010) affirms that when chemotherapy is used, the possibility of them surviving normally increases by four to five times greater. Chemotherapy can only be efficient in the treatment of patients with NSCLC, in cases where it is metastasized. The several methods of administering chemotherapy include intravenous administration, oral administration, or the utilization of both. The outpatient administration of chemotherapy entails several treatments in a period of weeks and may extend to several months depending on the severity of the lung cancer the patient is suffering from. The side effects associated with chemotherapy are undesirable as they cause damage to crucial blood cells such as the white blood cells increasing the chances of exposure to other infections. The loss of hair, weight, the development of sores on the mouth and increased diarrhea represent other key side effects of chemotherapy. In order to counter these, medical experts have advanced medications to treat or prevent these side effects accompanied with the treatment through chemotherapy. This implies that the side effects could be eliminated during the patient’s recovery period or after the overall completion of the process of treatment.

18.  What Is the Effectiveness of the Treatment?

The treatment usually gives the best chance of cure for the patient

19.  Are There Any Controversial Treatment?

There are controversial treatments of cancer. Marijuana is also a controversial treatment to lung cancer. The controversial aspects of the use of marijuana in the treatment of lung cancer are a perfect example of controversial treatment of lung cancer. The National Organization for the Reforms of Marijuana Laws presents and describes a number of scientific and clinical studies, which indicate that indeed marijuana can kill lung cancer cells. Stoppler (2013) opines that marijuana may effectively kill or stop the growth of many types of cancerous diseases including lung cancer. It is also asserted that marijuana has the capacity of reducing the growth of deadly brain tumors referred to as gliomas hence slowing down the rate of the disease. While these studies highlight some promise for the use of marijuana to treat cancer, more work is to being done in a bid to exemplify the view that indeed marijuana is an effective treatment for abnormal growth emanating from lung cancer. The complexities of state and federal marijuana laws also bring the use of marijuana into question.

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20.  Are There Any Experimental Treatments?

Gene therapy is a perfect example of an experimental treatment for cancer as well as other infectious diseases that involves introducing new genetic material into the cells of the patient to treat or prevent lung cancer. The Information Standard (2011) reiterates that lung cancer comes about because cells lose certain vital genes that cause them to turn into a tumor. Researchers are still conducting several approaches to improve the effectiveness of gene therapy, which include tests such as replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of gene. Another test is inactivating or what is termed as knocking out a mutated gene that is functioning improperly and test of the possibility of inducing a new gene into the body that will boost disease fight.

21.  Is There a Vaccine?

There is a vaccine. Therapeutic cancer vaccines are used to treat lung cancer.

22.  Are There Any Antibiotics?

There are several antibiotics such as Levofloxacin or Levaquin, which is a luoroquinolone antibiotic. Alternatively, Clindamycin or Cleocin can be used to kill anaerobes, which cause lung pneumonitis. Additionally, Zosyn is another antibiotic used to treat both community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia among other antibiotics.



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